Abstract

We describe a novel electrochemical technique for the nonlithographic, fluidic pick-and-place assembly of optoelectronic devices by electrical and optical addressing. An electrochemical cell was developed that consists of indium tin oxide (ITO) and n-type silicon substrates as the two electrode materials and deionized water R=18 MΩ as the electrolytic medium between the two electrodes. 0.820µmdiameter negatively charged polystyrene beads, 50100µmdiameter SiO2 pucks, and 50µm LED’s were successfully integrated upon a patterned silicon substrate by electrical addressing. In addition, 0.8µmdiameter beads were integrated upon a homogeneous silicon substrate by optical addressing. This method can be applied to massively parallel assembly >1000×1000 arrays of multiple types of devices (of a wide size range) with very fast (a few seconds) and accurate positioning.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. T. A. Nguty and N. N. Ekere, Circuits Assembly 10, 26 (1999).
  2. J. F. Mack, Hydraul. Pneumat. 50, 43 (1997).
  3. D. M. Taylor, Thin Solid Films 331, 1 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. J. Talghader, Proc. SPIE 3286, 86 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. G. Sosnowski, E. Tu, W. F. Butler, J. P. O’Connell, and J. M. Heller, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94, 1119 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Ozkan, O. Kibar, C. S. Ozkan, and S. C. Esener, presented at Optics in Computing 2000, Quebec City, Quebec, Canada, June 18–23, 2000.

1999 (1)

T. A. Nguty and N. N. Ekere, Circuits Assembly 10, 26 (1999).

1998 (2)

D. M. Taylor, Thin Solid Films 331, 1 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Talghader, Proc. SPIE 3286, 86 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

R. G. Sosnowski, E. Tu, W. F. Butler, J. P. O’Connell, and J. M. Heller, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94, 1119 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Mack, Hydraul. Pneumat. 50, 43 (1997).

Butler, W. F.

R. G. Sosnowski, E. Tu, W. F. Butler, J. P. O’Connell, and J. M. Heller, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94, 1119 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ekere, N. N.

T. A. Nguty and N. N. Ekere, Circuits Assembly 10, 26 (1999).

Esener, S. C.

M. Ozkan, O. Kibar, C. S. Ozkan, and S. C. Esener, presented at Optics in Computing 2000, Quebec City, Quebec, Canada, June 18–23, 2000.

Heller, J. M.

R. G. Sosnowski, E. Tu, W. F. Butler, J. P. O’Connell, and J. M. Heller, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94, 1119 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kibar, O.

M. Ozkan, O. Kibar, C. S. Ozkan, and S. C. Esener, presented at Optics in Computing 2000, Quebec City, Quebec, Canada, June 18–23, 2000.

Mack, J. F.

J. F. Mack, Hydraul. Pneumat. 50, 43 (1997).

Nguty, T. A.

T. A. Nguty and N. N. Ekere, Circuits Assembly 10, 26 (1999).

O’Connell, J. P.

R. G. Sosnowski, E. Tu, W. F. Butler, J. P. O’Connell, and J. M. Heller, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94, 1119 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ozkan, C. S.

M. Ozkan, O. Kibar, C. S. Ozkan, and S. C. Esener, presented at Optics in Computing 2000, Quebec City, Quebec, Canada, June 18–23, 2000.

Ozkan, M.

M. Ozkan, O. Kibar, C. S. Ozkan, and S. C. Esener, presented at Optics in Computing 2000, Quebec City, Quebec, Canada, June 18–23, 2000.

Sosnowski, R. G.

R. G. Sosnowski, E. Tu, W. F. Butler, J. P. O’Connell, and J. M. Heller, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94, 1119 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Talghader, J. J.

J. J. Talghader, Proc. SPIE 3286, 86 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, D. M.

D. M. Taylor, Thin Solid Films 331, 1 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tu, E.

R. G. Sosnowski, E. Tu, W. F. Butler, J. P. O’Connell, and J. M. Heller, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94, 1119 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Circuits Assembly (1)

T. A. Nguty and N. N. Ekere, Circuits Assembly 10, 26 (1999).

Hydraul. Pneumat. (1)

J. F. Mack, Hydraul. Pneumat. 50, 43 (1997).

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA (1)

R. G. Sosnowski, E. Tu, W. F. Butler, J. P. O’Connell, and J. M. Heller, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94, 1119 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

J. J. Talghader, Proc. SPIE 3286, 86 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (1)

D. M. Taylor, Thin Solid Films 331, 1 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

M. Ozkan, O. Kibar, C. S. Ozkan, and S. C. Esener, presented at Optics in Computing 2000, Quebec City, Quebec, Canada, June 18–23, 2000.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Illustrations of (a) an electrically addressed and (b) an optically addressed pick-and-place setup.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

20µm beads positioned and randomized with applied ±2.0V bias.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

50µmdiameter SiO2 puck positioned upon one electrode and then moved to the neighboring electrode.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Beads concentrated in the illuminated area. The three-dimensional figure and the xy plot are the bead distributions across the two-dimensional sample and across the section line, respectively.

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