We describe a novel electrochemical technique for the nonlithographic, fluidic pick-and-place assembly of optoelectronic devices by electrical and optical addressing. An electrochemical cell was developed that consists of indium tin oxide (ITO) and -type silicon substrates as the two electrode materials and deionized water as the electrolytic medium between the two electrodes. negatively charged polystyrene beads, pucks, and LED’s were successfully integrated upon a patterned silicon substrate by electrical addressing. In addition, beads were integrated upon a homogeneous silicon substrate by optical addressing. This method can be applied to massively parallel assembly of multiple types of devices (of a wide size range) with very fast (a few seconds) and accurate positioning.
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