Abstract

Silver halide AgClxBr1-x crystals were extruded to form polycrystalline fibers that are highly transparent in the spectral range 330 µm. Ordered bundles consisting of as many as 9000 fibers were fabricated by multiple extrusion steps. The transmission loss of an individual fiber in the 100-fiber bundles was 0.12 dB/cm, and the cross talk between neighboring fibers in the 900-fiber bundles was 25%. Thermal images of bodies at room temperature have been transmitted through the bundles. Such ordered bundles provide a solution for the problem of thermal imaging in regions where there is no line of sight between a thermal camera and a warm object.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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  1. T. Perazzo, M. Mao, O. Kwon, and A. Majumdar, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3567 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. Hilton, R. Hilton, J. McCord, G. Whaley, T. J. Lorentz, and P. Modlin, Proc. SPIE 3596, 64 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. German and A. Katzir, J. Mater. Sci. 31, 5109 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  4. F. Moser, D. Bunimovich, A. DeRow, O. Eyal, A. German, Y. Gostal, A. Levite, N. Barkay, A. Ravid, V. Scharf, S. Shalem, D. Shemesh, R. Simchi, I. Vasserman, and A. Katzir, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 2, 872 (1996).
  5. I. Paiss and A. Katzir, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 2384 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  6. I. Paiss, F. Moser, and A. Katzir, Fibers Integr. Opt. 10, 275 (1991).
  7. E. Rave, D. Shemesh, and A. Katzir, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1795 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  8. E. Betzig, M. Isaakson, and A. Lewis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 2088 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  9. L. Nagli, M. Gochler, A. Katzir, G. Fish, and A. Lewis, “Characterization of micropipettes for near-field microscopy in middle IR spectral region”, Appl. Phys. Lett. (to be published).
  10. N. Barkay, A. Levite, F. Moser, and A. Katzir, J. Appl. Phys. 64, 5256 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  11. L. Huang and U. Osterberg, Proc. SPIE 2536, 481 (1995).

2000 (1)

E. Rave, D. Shemesh, and A. Katzir, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1795 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

T. Perazzo, M. Mao, O. Kwon, and A. Majumdar, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3567 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. Hilton, R. Hilton, J. McCord, G. Whaley, T. J. Lorentz, and P. Modlin, Proc. SPIE 3596, 64 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

A. German and A. Katzir, J. Mater. Sci. 31, 5109 (1996).
[CrossRef]

F. Moser, D. Bunimovich, A. DeRow, O. Eyal, A. German, Y. Gostal, A. Levite, N. Barkay, A. Ravid, V. Scharf, S. Shalem, D. Shemesh, R. Simchi, I. Vasserman, and A. Katzir, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 2, 872 (1996).

1995 (1)

L. Huang and U. Osterberg, Proc. SPIE 2536, 481 (1995).

1992 (1)

I. Paiss and A. Katzir, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 2384 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

I. Paiss, F. Moser, and A. Katzir, Fibers Integr. Opt. 10, 275 (1991).

1988 (1)

N. Barkay, A. Levite, F. Moser, and A. Katzir, J. Appl. Phys. 64, 5256 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

E. Betzig, M. Isaakson, and A. Lewis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 2088 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Barkay, N.

F. Moser, D. Bunimovich, A. DeRow, O. Eyal, A. German, Y. Gostal, A. Levite, N. Barkay, A. Ravid, V. Scharf, S. Shalem, D. Shemesh, R. Simchi, I. Vasserman, and A. Katzir, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 2, 872 (1996).

N. Barkay, A. Levite, F. Moser, and A. Katzir, J. Appl. Phys. 64, 5256 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Betzig, E.

E. Betzig, M. Isaakson, and A. Lewis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 2088 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Bunimovich, D.

F. Moser, D. Bunimovich, A. DeRow, O. Eyal, A. German, Y. Gostal, A. Levite, N. Barkay, A. Ravid, V. Scharf, S. Shalem, D. Shemesh, R. Simchi, I. Vasserman, and A. Katzir, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 2, 872 (1996).

DeRow, A.

F. Moser, D. Bunimovich, A. DeRow, O. Eyal, A. German, Y. Gostal, A. Levite, N. Barkay, A. Ravid, V. Scharf, S. Shalem, D. Shemesh, R. Simchi, I. Vasserman, and A. Katzir, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 2, 872 (1996).

Eyal, O.

F. Moser, D. Bunimovich, A. DeRow, O. Eyal, A. German, Y. Gostal, A. Levite, N. Barkay, A. Ravid, V. Scharf, S. Shalem, D. Shemesh, R. Simchi, I. Vasserman, and A. Katzir, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 2, 872 (1996).

Fish, G.

L. Nagli, M. Gochler, A. Katzir, G. Fish, and A. Lewis, “Characterization of micropipettes for near-field microscopy in middle IR spectral region”, Appl. Phys. Lett. (to be published).

German, A.

F. Moser, D. Bunimovich, A. DeRow, O. Eyal, A. German, Y. Gostal, A. Levite, N. Barkay, A. Ravid, V. Scharf, S. Shalem, D. Shemesh, R. Simchi, I. Vasserman, and A. Katzir, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 2, 872 (1996).

A. German and A. Katzir, J. Mater. Sci. 31, 5109 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gochler, M.

L. Nagli, M. Gochler, A. Katzir, G. Fish, and A. Lewis, “Characterization of micropipettes for near-field microscopy in middle IR spectral region”, Appl. Phys. Lett. (to be published).

Gostal, Y.

F. Moser, D. Bunimovich, A. DeRow, O. Eyal, A. German, Y. Gostal, A. Levite, N. Barkay, A. Ravid, V. Scharf, S. Shalem, D. Shemesh, R. Simchi, I. Vasserman, and A. Katzir, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 2, 872 (1996).

Hilton, R.

R. Hilton, R. Hilton, J. McCord, G. Whaley, T. J. Lorentz, and P. Modlin, Proc. SPIE 3596, 64 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. Hilton, R. Hilton, J. McCord, G. Whaley, T. J. Lorentz, and P. Modlin, Proc. SPIE 3596, 64 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Huang, L.

L. Huang and U. Osterberg, Proc. SPIE 2536, 481 (1995).

Isaakson, M.

E. Betzig, M. Isaakson, and A. Lewis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 2088 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Katzir, A.

E. Rave, D. Shemesh, and A. Katzir, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1795 (2000).
[CrossRef]

F. Moser, D. Bunimovich, A. DeRow, O. Eyal, A. German, Y. Gostal, A. Levite, N. Barkay, A. Ravid, V. Scharf, S. Shalem, D. Shemesh, R. Simchi, I. Vasserman, and A. Katzir, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 2, 872 (1996).

A. German and A. Katzir, J. Mater. Sci. 31, 5109 (1996).
[CrossRef]

I. Paiss and A. Katzir, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 2384 (1992).
[CrossRef]

I. Paiss, F. Moser, and A. Katzir, Fibers Integr. Opt. 10, 275 (1991).

N. Barkay, A. Levite, F. Moser, and A. Katzir, J. Appl. Phys. 64, 5256 (1988).
[CrossRef]

L. Nagli, M. Gochler, A. Katzir, G. Fish, and A. Lewis, “Characterization of micropipettes for near-field microscopy in middle IR spectral region”, Appl. Phys. Lett. (to be published).

Kwon, O.

T. Perazzo, M. Mao, O. Kwon, and A. Majumdar, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3567 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Levite, A.

F. Moser, D. Bunimovich, A. DeRow, O. Eyal, A. German, Y. Gostal, A. Levite, N. Barkay, A. Ravid, V. Scharf, S. Shalem, D. Shemesh, R. Simchi, I. Vasserman, and A. Katzir, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 2, 872 (1996).

N. Barkay, A. Levite, F. Moser, and A. Katzir, J. Appl. Phys. 64, 5256 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Lewis, A.

E. Betzig, M. Isaakson, and A. Lewis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 2088 (1987).
[CrossRef]

L. Nagli, M. Gochler, A. Katzir, G. Fish, and A. Lewis, “Characterization of micropipettes for near-field microscopy in middle IR spectral region”, Appl. Phys. Lett. (to be published).

Lorentz, T. J.

R. Hilton, R. Hilton, J. McCord, G. Whaley, T. J. Lorentz, and P. Modlin, Proc. SPIE 3596, 64 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Majumdar, A.

T. Perazzo, M. Mao, O. Kwon, and A. Majumdar, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3567 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mao, M.

T. Perazzo, M. Mao, O. Kwon, and A. Majumdar, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3567 (1999).
[CrossRef]

McCord, J.

R. Hilton, R. Hilton, J. McCord, G. Whaley, T. J. Lorentz, and P. Modlin, Proc. SPIE 3596, 64 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Modlin, P.

R. Hilton, R. Hilton, J. McCord, G. Whaley, T. J. Lorentz, and P. Modlin, Proc. SPIE 3596, 64 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Moser, F.

F. Moser, D. Bunimovich, A. DeRow, O. Eyal, A. German, Y. Gostal, A. Levite, N. Barkay, A. Ravid, V. Scharf, S. Shalem, D. Shemesh, R. Simchi, I. Vasserman, and A. Katzir, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 2, 872 (1996).

I. Paiss, F. Moser, and A. Katzir, Fibers Integr. Opt. 10, 275 (1991).

N. Barkay, A. Levite, F. Moser, and A. Katzir, J. Appl. Phys. 64, 5256 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Nagli, L.

L. Nagli, M. Gochler, A. Katzir, G. Fish, and A. Lewis, “Characterization of micropipettes for near-field microscopy in middle IR spectral region”, Appl. Phys. Lett. (to be published).

Osterberg, U.

L. Huang and U. Osterberg, Proc. SPIE 2536, 481 (1995).

Paiss, I.

I. Paiss and A. Katzir, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 2384 (1992).
[CrossRef]

I. Paiss, F. Moser, and A. Katzir, Fibers Integr. Opt. 10, 275 (1991).

Perazzo, T.

T. Perazzo, M. Mao, O. Kwon, and A. Majumdar, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3567 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rave, E.

E. Rave, D. Shemesh, and A. Katzir, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1795 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ravid, A.

F. Moser, D. Bunimovich, A. DeRow, O. Eyal, A. German, Y. Gostal, A. Levite, N. Barkay, A. Ravid, V. Scharf, S. Shalem, D. Shemesh, R. Simchi, I. Vasserman, and A. Katzir, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 2, 872 (1996).

Scharf, V.

F. Moser, D. Bunimovich, A. DeRow, O. Eyal, A. German, Y. Gostal, A. Levite, N. Barkay, A. Ravid, V. Scharf, S. Shalem, D. Shemesh, R. Simchi, I. Vasserman, and A. Katzir, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 2, 872 (1996).

Shalem, S.

F. Moser, D. Bunimovich, A. DeRow, O. Eyal, A. German, Y. Gostal, A. Levite, N. Barkay, A. Ravid, V. Scharf, S. Shalem, D. Shemesh, R. Simchi, I. Vasserman, and A. Katzir, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 2, 872 (1996).

Shemesh, D.

E. Rave, D. Shemesh, and A. Katzir, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1795 (2000).
[CrossRef]

F. Moser, D. Bunimovich, A. DeRow, O. Eyal, A. German, Y. Gostal, A. Levite, N. Barkay, A. Ravid, V. Scharf, S. Shalem, D. Shemesh, R. Simchi, I. Vasserman, and A. Katzir, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 2, 872 (1996).

Simchi, R.

F. Moser, D. Bunimovich, A. DeRow, O. Eyal, A. German, Y. Gostal, A. Levite, N. Barkay, A. Ravid, V. Scharf, S. Shalem, D. Shemesh, R. Simchi, I. Vasserman, and A. Katzir, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 2, 872 (1996).

Vasserman, I.

F. Moser, D. Bunimovich, A. DeRow, O. Eyal, A. German, Y. Gostal, A. Levite, N. Barkay, A. Ravid, V. Scharf, S. Shalem, D. Shemesh, R. Simchi, I. Vasserman, and A. Katzir, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 2, 872 (1996).

Whaley, G.

R. Hilton, R. Hilton, J. McCord, G. Whaley, T. J. Lorentz, and P. Modlin, Proc. SPIE 3596, 64 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

T. Perazzo, M. Mao, O. Kwon, and A. Majumdar, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3567 (1999).
[CrossRef]

I. Paiss and A. Katzir, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 2384 (1992).
[CrossRef]

E. Rave, D. Shemesh, and A. Katzir, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1795 (2000).
[CrossRef]

E. Betzig, M. Isaakson, and A. Lewis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 2088 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Fibers Integr. Opt. (1)

I. Paiss, F. Moser, and A. Katzir, Fibers Integr. Opt. 10, 275 (1991).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

F. Moser, D. Bunimovich, A. DeRow, O. Eyal, A. German, Y. Gostal, A. Levite, N. Barkay, A. Ravid, V. Scharf, S. Shalem, D. Shemesh, R. Simchi, I. Vasserman, and A. Katzir, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 2, 872 (1996).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

N. Barkay, A. Levite, F. Moser, and A. Katzir, J. Appl. Phys. 64, 5256 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Sci. (1)

A. German and A. Katzir, J. Mater. Sci. 31, 5109 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (2)

R. Hilton, R. Hilton, J. McCord, G. Whaley, T. J. Lorentz, and P. Modlin, Proc. SPIE 3596, 64 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. Huang and U. Osterberg, Proc. SPIE 2536, 481 (1995).

Other (1)

L. Nagli, M. Gochler, A. Katzir, G. Fish, and A. Lewis, “Characterization of micropipettes for near-field microscopy in middle IR spectral region”, Appl. Phys. Lett. (to be published).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup for measurements of individual fibers.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Scanning with a pipette of one row in the bundle array. The diameter of an individual fiber is 230 µm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Scanning of the bundle array in two dimensions, X and Y, with a pipette at the entry. The detector signal is shown on the Z coordinate. The diameter of each fiber is 80 µm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Experimental setup for measurement of cross talk in an infrared fiber bundle.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Measurement of the infrared radiation at the distal end of the bundle. The diameter of each fiber is 80 µm.

Equations (1)

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Pout=Pin1-R210-αCoreL/10η1-κ,

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