Abstract

A novel correlator architecture is described that is similar to the VanderLugt correlator (VLC) but differs because the input Fourier transform (FT) is performed electronically rather than optically. We present results in which the FT’s are reduced to binary phase-only filters (BPOF’s); the required multiplication of the input and the reference FT’s (performed optically in the VLC) is performed electronically simply by use of a single xor logic gate. The problematic zero order and symmetric correlation peak are shown to be removed by use of a chirp-encoded BPOF.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. VanderLugt, IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory IT-10, 139 (1964).
  2. The basic correlator without chirps was demonstrated in slow time by R. C. D. Young in 1994 at DERA.
  3. B. S. Lowans and M. F. Lewis, in Optics in Computing, 1999 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), paper OTuA11.
  4. T. D. Wilkinson, W. A. Crossland, T. C. Coker, A. B. Davey, M. Stanley, B. S. Lowans, M. F. Lewis, P. Shallow, J. Moore, and S. Lang, in Spatial Light Modulators, 1999 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), paper SMB2-1.
  5. R. W. M. Smith, C. J. Radford, G. Brown, and P. G. Ducksbury, in IEE Colloquium on Parallel Architectures for Image Processing, IEE Digest 135 (Institution of Electrical Engineers, London, 1994), pp. 4.1–4.8.
  6. D. M. Cottrell, R. A. Lilly, J. A. Davis, and T. Day, Appl. Opt. 26, 3755 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. J. L. Horner and H. O. Bartelt, Appl. Opt. 24, 2889 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. D. G. Gibson, N. Aldridge, M. B. Brown, A. G. Levenston, and H. White, Proc. SPIE 492, 165 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. Vallmitjana, S. Bosch, I. Juvells, and D. Ros, Appl. Opt. 25, 4473 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  10. Q. Tang and B. Javidi, Appl. Opt. 32, 1911 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. S. E. Broomfield, M. A. A. Neil, E. G. S. Paige, R. H. Scarbrough, and G. G. Yang, Proc. SPIE 1732, 287 (1992).
    [CrossRef]

1993 (1)

1992 (1)

S. E. Broomfield, M. A. A. Neil, E. G. S. Paige, R. H. Scarbrough, and G. G. Yang, Proc. SPIE 1732, 287 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

1986 (1)

1985 (1)

1984 (1)

D. G. Gibson, N. Aldridge, M. B. Brown, A. G. Levenston, and H. White, Proc. SPIE 492, 165 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1964 (1)

A. VanderLugt, IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory IT-10, 139 (1964).

Aldridge, N.

D. G. Gibson, N. Aldridge, M. B. Brown, A. G. Levenston, and H. White, Proc. SPIE 492, 165 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Bartelt, H. O.

Bosch, S.

Broomfield, S. E.

S. E. Broomfield, M. A. A. Neil, E. G. S. Paige, R. H. Scarbrough, and G. G. Yang, Proc. SPIE 1732, 287 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Brown, G.

R. W. M. Smith, C. J. Radford, G. Brown, and P. G. Ducksbury, in IEE Colloquium on Parallel Architectures for Image Processing, IEE Digest 135 (Institution of Electrical Engineers, London, 1994), pp. 4.1–4.8.

Brown, M. B.

D. G. Gibson, N. Aldridge, M. B. Brown, A. G. Levenston, and H. White, Proc. SPIE 492, 165 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Coker, T. C.

T. D. Wilkinson, W. A. Crossland, T. C. Coker, A. B. Davey, M. Stanley, B. S. Lowans, M. F. Lewis, P. Shallow, J. Moore, and S. Lang, in Spatial Light Modulators, 1999 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), paper SMB2-1.

Cottrell, D. M.

Crossland, W. A.

T. D. Wilkinson, W. A. Crossland, T. C. Coker, A. B. Davey, M. Stanley, B. S. Lowans, M. F. Lewis, P. Shallow, J. Moore, and S. Lang, in Spatial Light Modulators, 1999 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), paper SMB2-1.

Davey, A. B.

T. D. Wilkinson, W. A. Crossland, T. C. Coker, A. B. Davey, M. Stanley, B. S. Lowans, M. F. Lewis, P. Shallow, J. Moore, and S. Lang, in Spatial Light Modulators, 1999 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), paper SMB2-1.

Davis, J. A.

Day, T.

Ducksbury, P. G.

R. W. M. Smith, C. J. Radford, G. Brown, and P. G. Ducksbury, in IEE Colloquium on Parallel Architectures for Image Processing, IEE Digest 135 (Institution of Electrical Engineers, London, 1994), pp. 4.1–4.8.

Gibson, D. G.

D. G. Gibson, N. Aldridge, M. B. Brown, A. G. Levenston, and H. White, Proc. SPIE 492, 165 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Horner, J. L.

Javidi, B.

Juvells, I.

Lang, S.

T. D. Wilkinson, W. A. Crossland, T. C. Coker, A. B. Davey, M. Stanley, B. S. Lowans, M. F. Lewis, P. Shallow, J. Moore, and S. Lang, in Spatial Light Modulators, 1999 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), paper SMB2-1.

Levenston, A. G.

D. G. Gibson, N. Aldridge, M. B. Brown, A. G. Levenston, and H. White, Proc. SPIE 492, 165 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Lewis, M. F.

T. D. Wilkinson, W. A. Crossland, T. C. Coker, A. B. Davey, M. Stanley, B. S. Lowans, M. F. Lewis, P. Shallow, J. Moore, and S. Lang, in Spatial Light Modulators, 1999 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), paper SMB2-1.

B. S. Lowans and M. F. Lewis, in Optics in Computing, 1999 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), paper OTuA11.

Lilly, R. A.

Lowans, B. S.

B. S. Lowans and M. F. Lewis, in Optics in Computing, 1999 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), paper OTuA11.

T. D. Wilkinson, W. A. Crossland, T. C. Coker, A. B. Davey, M. Stanley, B. S. Lowans, M. F. Lewis, P. Shallow, J. Moore, and S. Lang, in Spatial Light Modulators, 1999 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), paper SMB2-1.

Moore, J.

T. D. Wilkinson, W. A. Crossland, T. C. Coker, A. B. Davey, M. Stanley, B. S. Lowans, M. F. Lewis, P. Shallow, J. Moore, and S. Lang, in Spatial Light Modulators, 1999 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), paper SMB2-1.

Neil, M. A. A.

S. E. Broomfield, M. A. A. Neil, E. G. S. Paige, R. H. Scarbrough, and G. G. Yang, Proc. SPIE 1732, 287 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Paige, E. G. S.

S. E. Broomfield, M. A. A. Neil, E. G. S. Paige, R. H. Scarbrough, and G. G. Yang, Proc. SPIE 1732, 287 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Radford, C. J.

R. W. M. Smith, C. J. Radford, G. Brown, and P. G. Ducksbury, in IEE Colloquium on Parallel Architectures for Image Processing, IEE Digest 135 (Institution of Electrical Engineers, London, 1994), pp. 4.1–4.8.

Ros, D.

Scarbrough, R. H.

S. E. Broomfield, M. A. A. Neil, E. G. S. Paige, R. H. Scarbrough, and G. G. Yang, Proc. SPIE 1732, 287 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Shallow, P.

T. D. Wilkinson, W. A. Crossland, T. C. Coker, A. B. Davey, M. Stanley, B. S. Lowans, M. F. Lewis, P. Shallow, J. Moore, and S. Lang, in Spatial Light Modulators, 1999 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), paper SMB2-1.

Smith, R. W. M.

R. W. M. Smith, C. J. Radford, G. Brown, and P. G. Ducksbury, in IEE Colloquium on Parallel Architectures for Image Processing, IEE Digest 135 (Institution of Electrical Engineers, London, 1994), pp. 4.1–4.8.

Stanley, M.

T. D. Wilkinson, W. A. Crossland, T. C. Coker, A. B. Davey, M. Stanley, B. S. Lowans, M. F. Lewis, P. Shallow, J. Moore, and S. Lang, in Spatial Light Modulators, 1999 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), paper SMB2-1.

Tang, Q.

Vallmitjana, S.

VanderLugt, A.

A. VanderLugt, IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory IT-10, 139 (1964).

White, H.

D. G. Gibson, N. Aldridge, M. B. Brown, A. G. Levenston, and H. White, Proc. SPIE 492, 165 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Wilkinson, T. D.

T. D. Wilkinson, W. A. Crossland, T. C. Coker, A. B. Davey, M. Stanley, B. S. Lowans, M. F. Lewis, P. Shallow, J. Moore, and S. Lang, in Spatial Light Modulators, 1999 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), paper SMB2-1.

Yang, G. G.

S. E. Broomfield, M. A. A. Neil, E. G. S. Paige, R. H. Scarbrough, and G. G. Yang, Proc. SPIE 1732, 287 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (4)

IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory (1)

A. VanderLugt, IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory IT-10, 139 (1964).

Proc. SPIE (2)

D. G. Gibson, N. Aldridge, M. B. Brown, A. G. Levenston, and H. White, Proc. SPIE 492, 165 (1984).
[CrossRef]

S. E. Broomfield, M. A. A. Neil, E. G. S. Paige, R. H. Scarbrough, and G. G. Yang, Proc. SPIE 1732, 287 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

The basic correlator without chirps was demonstrated in slow time by R. C. D. Young in 1994 at DERA.

B. S. Lowans and M. F. Lewis, in Optics in Computing, 1999 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), paper OTuA11.

T. D. Wilkinson, W. A. Crossland, T. C. Coker, A. B. Davey, M. Stanley, B. S. Lowans, M. F. Lewis, P. Shallow, J. Moore, and S. Lang, in Spatial Light Modulators, 1999 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), paper SMB2-1.

R. W. M. Smith, C. J. Radford, G. Brown, and P. G. Ducksbury, in IEE Colloquium on Parallel Architectures for Image Processing, IEE Digest 135 (Institution of Electrical Engineers, London, 1994), pp. 4.1–4.8.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the VLC.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

DERA binary digital-plus-digital correlator.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Images of (left) an F16-A and (right) an AV-8 Harrier.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Results for (a) autocorrelation of the F16 and (b) cross correlation of the F16 with the Harrier.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Results obtained with a chirp for (a) autocorrelation of the F16 and (b) cross correlation of the F16 with the Harrier.

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Sfx2,y2=i2Fx2,y2-F*x2,y2.
BINSf=+1Sfx2,y20-1otherwise.
U=Agx2,y2expiϕgx2,y2×BINi2expiϕfx2,y2-exp-iϕfx2,y2.
U=BINi2expiϕgx2,y2-exp-iϕgx2,y2XORBINi2expiϕfx2,y2-exp-iϕfx2,y2.
Cx2,y2=exp-ikx22+y222z.
U=BINi2expiϕgx2,y2-exp-iϕgx2,y2×XORBINi2×expiϕfx2,y2exp-ikx22+y222z-exp-iϕfx2,y2expikx22+y222z.

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