Abstract

Bragg gratings have been written in an optical fiber with a core made from ternary SiO2:SnO2:Na2O glass and a SiO2 cladding. The presence of Na2O allows for higher concentrations of SnO2, which are believed to be responsible for the photorefractive response of this composition. In these preliminary experiments significant refractive-index modulations, up to 6.2×10-4, have been achieved with a 248-nm excimer laser and a phase mask to write gratings for reflectivity at 1.5 µm. The induced refractive-index changes show enhanced temperature stability, and there is no sign of any erasure up to temperatures exceeding 600 °C.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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References

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2000 (1)

G. Brambilla, V. Pruneri, and L. Reekie, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 807 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

K. Okamoto, Opt. Quantum Electron. 31, 107 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

K. Imamura, T. Nakai, Y. Sudo, and Y. Imada, Electron. Lett. 34, 1772 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

M. Douay, W. X. Xie, T. Taunay, P. Beverage, P. Niay, P. Cardier, B. Poumellec, L. Dong, J. F. Bayon, H. Poignant, and E. Develaque, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1329 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. O. Hill and G. Meltz, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1263 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (3)

L. Dong, J. L. Cruz, L. Reekie, M. G. Xu, and D. N. Payne, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1048 (1995).
[CrossRef]

L. Dong, J. L. Cruz, J. A. Tucknott, L. Reekie, and D. N. Payne, Opt. Lett. 20, 1982 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Albert, B. Malo, K. O. Hill, F. Bilodeau, and D. C. Johnson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3529 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

T. Erdogan, V. Mizrahi, P. J. Lemaire, and D. Monroe, J. Appl. Phys. 76, 73 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

Albert, J.

J. Albert, B. Malo, K. O. Hill, F. Bilodeau, and D. C. Johnson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3529 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bayon, J. F.

M. Douay, W. X. Xie, T. Taunay, P. Beverage, P. Niay, P. Cardier, B. Poumellec, L. Dong, J. F. Bayon, H. Poignant, and E. Develaque, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1329 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Beverage, P.

M. Douay, W. X. Xie, T. Taunay, P. Beverage, P. Niay, P. Cardier, B. Poumellec, L. Dong, J. F. Bayon, H. Poignant, and E. Develaque, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1329 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bilodeau, F.

J. Albert, B. Malo, K. O. Hill, F. Bilodeau, and D. C. Johnson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3529 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Brambilla, G.

G. Brambilla, V. Pruneri, and L. Reekie, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 807 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cardier, P.

M. Douay, W. X. Xie, T. Taunay, P. Beverage, P. Niay, P. Cardier, B. Poumellec, L. Dong, J. F. Bayon, H. Poignant, and E. Develaque, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1329 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Cruz, J. L.

L. Dong, J. L. Cruz, L. Reekie, M. G. Xu, and D. N. Payne, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1048 (1995).
[CrossRef]

L. Dong, J. L. Cruz, J. A. Tucknott, L. Reekie, and D. N. Payne, Opt. Lett. 20, 1982 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Develaque, E.

M. Douay, W. X. Xie, T. Taunay, P. Beverage, P. Niay, P. Cardier, B. Poumellec, L. Dong, J. F. Bayon, H. Poignant, and E. Develaque, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1329 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Dong, L.

M. Douay, W. X. Xie, T. Taunay, P. Beverage, P. Niay, P. Cardier, B. Poumellec, L. Dong, J. F. Bayon, H. Poignant, and E. Develaque, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1329 (1997).
[CrossRef]

L. Dong, J. L. Cruz, L. Reekie, M. G. Xu, and D. N. Payne, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1048 (1995).
[CrossRef]

L. Dong, J. L. Cruz, J. A. Tucknott, L. Reekie, and D. N. Payne, Opt. Lett. 20, 1982 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Douay, M.

M. Douay, W. X. Xie, T. Taunay, P. Beverage, P. Niay, P. Cardier, B. Poumellec, L. Dong, J. F. Bayon, H. Poignant, and E. Develaque, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1329 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Erdogan, T.

T. Erdogan, V. Mizrahi, P. J. Lemaire, and D. Monroe, J. Appl. Phys. 76, 73 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hill, K. O.

K. O. Hill and G. Meltz, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1263 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Albert, B. Malo, K. O. Hill, F. Bilodeau, and D. C. Johnson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3529 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Imada, Y.

K. Imamura, T. Nakai, Y. Sudo, and Y. Imada, Electron. Lett. 34, 1772 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Imamura, K.

K. Imamura, T. Nakai, Y. Sudo, and Y. Imada, Electron. Lett. 34, 1772 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, D. C.

J. Albert, B. Malo, K. O. Hill, F. Bilodeau, and D. C. Johnson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3529 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lemaire, P. J.

T. Erdogan, V. Mizrahi, P. J. Lemaire, and D. Monroe, J. Appl. Phys. 76, 73 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Malo, B.

J. Albert, B. Malo, K. O. Hill, F. Bilodeau, and D. C. Johnson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3529 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Mazurin, O. V.

O. V. Mazurin, M. V. Sreltzina, and T. P. Shvaiko-Shvaikovskaya, Handbook of Glass Data (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1985).

Meltz, G.

K. O. Hill and G. Meltz, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1263 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mizrahi, V.

T. Erdogan, V. Mizrahi, P. J. Lemaire, and D. Monroe, J. Appl. Phys. 76, 73 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Monroe, D.

T. Erdogan, V. Mizrahi, P. J. Lemaire, and D. Monroe, J. Appl. Phys. 76, 73 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Nakai, T.

K. Imamura, T. Nakai, Y. Sudo, and Y. Imada, Electron. Lett. 34, 1772 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Niay, P.

M. Douay, W. X. Xie, T. Taunay, P. Beverage, P. Niay, P. Cardier, B. Poumellec, L. Dong, J. F. Bayon, H. Poignant, and E. Develaque, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1329 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Okamoto, K.

K. Okamoto, Opt. Quantum Electron. 31, 107 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Payne, D. N.

L. Dong, J. L. Cruz, L. Reekie, M. G. Xu, and D. N. Payne, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1048 (1995).
[CrossRef]

L. Dong, J. L. Cruz, J. A. Tucknott, L. Reekie, and D. N. Payne, Opt. Lett. 20, 1982 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Poignant, H.

M. Douay, W. X. Xie, T. Taunay, P. Beverage, P. Niay, P. Cardier, B. Poumellec, L. Dong, J. F. Bayon, H. Poignant, and E. Develaque, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1329 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Poumellec, B.

M. Douay, W. X. Xie, T. Taunay, P. Beverage, P. Niay, P. Cardier, B. Poumellec, L. Dong, J. F. Bayon, H. Poignant, and E. Develaque, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1329 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Pruneri, V.

G. Brambilla, V. Pruneri, and L. Reekie, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 807 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Reekie, L.

G. Brambilla, V. Pruneri, and L. Reekie, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 807 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. Dong, J. L. Cruz, J. A. Tucknott, L. Reekie, and D. N. Payne, Opt. Lett. 20, 1982 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Dong, J. L. Cruz, L. Reekie, M. G. Xu, and D. N. Payne, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1048 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Shvaiko-Shvaikovskaya, T. P.

O. V. Mazurin, M. V. Sreltzina, and T. P. Shvaiko-Shvaikovskaya, Handbook of Glass Data (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1985).

Snitzer, E.

Sreltzina, M. V.

O. V. Mazurin, M. V. Sreltzina, and T. P. Shvaiko-Shvaikovskaya, Handbook of Glass Data (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1985).

Sudo, Y.

K. Imamura, T. Nakai, Y. Sudo, and Y. Imada, Electron. Lett. 34, 1772 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Taunay, T.

M. Douay, W. X. Xie, T. Taunay, P. Beverage, P. Niay, P. Cardier, B. Poumellec, L. Dong, J. F. Bayon, H. Poignant, and E. Develaque, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1329 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tucknott, J. A.

Tumminelli, R.

Xie, W. X.

M. Douay, W. X. Xie, T. Taunay, P. Beverage, P. Niay, P. Cardier, B. Poumellec, L. Dong, J. F. Bayon, H. Poignant, and E. Develaque, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1329 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Xu, M. G.

L. Dong, J. L. Cruz, L. Reekie, M. G. Xu, and D. N. Payne, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1048 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

G. Brambilla, V. Pruneri, and L. Reekie, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 807 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Albert, B. Malo, K. O. Hill, F. Bilodeau, and D. C. Johnson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3529 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

K. Imamura, T. Nakai, Y. Sudo, and Y. Imada, Electron. Lett. 34, 1772 (1998).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

L. Dong, J. L. Cruz, L. Reekie, M. G. Xu, and D. N. Payne, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1048 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

T. Erdogan, V. Mizrahi, P. J. Lemaire, and D. Monroe, J. Appl. Phys. 76, 73 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

M. Douay, W. X. Xie, T. Taunay, P. Beverage, P. Niay, P. Cardier, B. Poumellec, L. Dong, J. F. Bayon, H. Poignant, and E. Develaque, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1329 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. O. Hill and G. Meltz, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1263 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

K. Okamoto, Opt. Quantum Electron. 31, 107 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

O. V. Mazurin, M. V. Sreltzina, and T. P. Shvaiko-Shvaikovskaya, Handbook of Glass Data (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1985).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Growth of refractive-index modulation Δnmod as a result of exposure to a 248-nm KrF laser at 30 pulses/s with 140 mJ/pulse cm-2.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Initial modulation growth δΔnmod/δΔt rate as a function of KrF laser energy per pulse. Solid line, the best linear fit. The resultant slope is 1.1, indicating that the process is one-photon driven.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Temperature stability of gratings written in SiO2:SnO2:Na2O fiber: The main reflectivity peak is shown at several temperatures. The sample was heated in steps of 45 C° (starting from 205 °C) in 2 min per step and kept at that temperature for 28 min before the temperature was increased in another step.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Comparison of temperature stability of gratings written in three core glass compositions: SiO2:SnO2:Na2O (SSN), SiO2:GeO2 (SG), and SiO2:GeO2:B2O3 (SGB). The refractive-index modulation normalized to the initial value at room temperature Δnmod/Δn0 was measured during step heating: The samples were heated in steps of 45 C° (starting from 205 °C) in 2 min per step and kept at that temperature for 28 min before the temperature was increased in another step.

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