Abstract

Straining a Ge-doped optical fiber increases its UV photosensitivity. The speed of grating fabrication in a standard AT&T telecommunication fiber increases by 18 times, while the final refractive-index change is enhanced by a factor of 5. Measurements reveal opposite changes in the stress of the fiber core induced by UV light in strained and unstrained fibers.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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1999

N. F. Borelli, D. C. Allan, and R. A. Modavis, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 1672 (1999).
[CrossRef]

V. Grubsky, A. Skorucak, D. S. Starodubov, and J. Feinberg, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 87 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

I. Riant and F. Haller, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1464 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

T. Taunay, P. Niay, P. Bernage, M. Douay, W. X. Xie, D. Pureur, P. Cordier, J. F. Bayon, H. Poignant, E. Delevaque, and B. Poumellec, J. Phys. D 30, 40 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

B. Poumellec, P. Niay, M. Douay, and J. F. Bayon, J. Phys. D 29, 1842 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

1993

M. G. Sceats, G. R. Atkins, and S. B. Poole, Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 23, 381 (1993).
[CrossRef]

D. Z. Anderson, V. Mizrahi, T. Erdogan, and A. E. White, Electron. Lett. 29, 566 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1990

J. P. Bernardin and N. M. Lawandy, Opt. Commun. 79, 194 (1990).
[CrossRef]

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C. Fiori and R. A. B. Devine, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 61, 187 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Aben, H.

See, for example, H. Aben and C. Guillement, Photo-elasticity of Glass (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1993).
[CrossRef]

Allan, D. C.

Anderson, D. Z.

D. Z. Anderson, V. Mizrahi, T. Erdogan, and A. E. White, Electron. Lett. 29, 566 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Atkins, G. R.

M. G. Sceats, G. R. Atkins, and S. B. Poole, Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 23, 381 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Bayon, J. F.

T. Taunay, P. Niay, P. Bernage, M. Douay, W. X. Xie, D. Pureur, P. Cordier, J. F. Bayon, H. Poignant, E. Delevaque, and B. Poumellec, J. Phys. D 30, 40 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. Poumellec, P. Niay, M. Douay, and J. F. Bayon, J. Phys. D 29, 1842 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bernage, P.

T. Taunay, P. Niay, P. Bernage, M. Douay, W. X. Xie, D. Pureur, P. Cordier, J. F. Bayon, H. Poignant, E. Delevaque, and B. Poumellec, J. Phys. D 30, 40 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bernardin, J. P.

J. P. Bernardin and N. M. Lawandy, Opt. Commun. 79, 194 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Borelli, N. F.

Cochet, F.

Cordier, P.

T. Taunay, P. Niay, P. Bernage, M. Douay, W. X. Xie, D. Pureur, P. Cordier, J. F. Bayon, H. Poignant, E. Delevaque, and B. Poumellec, J. Phys. D 30, 40 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Delevaque, E.

T. Taunay, P. Niay, P. Bernage, M. Douay, W. X. Xie, D. Pureur, P. Cordier, J. F. Bayon, H. Poignant, E. Delevaque, and B. Poumellec, J. Phys. D 30, 40 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Devine, R. A. B.

C. Fiori and R. A. B. Devine, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 61, 187 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Douay, M.

T. Taunay, P. Niay, P. Bernage, M. Douay, W. X. Xie, D. Pureur, P. Cordier, J. F. Bayon, H. Poignant, E. Delevaque, and B. Poumellec, J. Phys. D 30, 40 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. Poumellec, P. Niay, M. Douay, and J. F. Bayon, J. Phys. D 29, 1842 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Erdogan, T.

D. Z. Anderson, V. Mizrahi, T. Erdogan, and A. E. White, Electron. Lett. 29, 566 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Feinberg, J.

V. Grubsky, A. Skorucak, D. S. Starodubov, and J. Feinberg, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 87 (1999).
[CrossRef]

V. Grubsky, D. S. Starodubov, and J. Feinberg, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), 1999 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), paper ThD2.

Fiori, C.

C. Fiori and R. A. B. Devine, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 61, 187 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Fonjallaz, P. Y.

Friebele, E. J.

T. Tsai, T. Taunay, and E. J. Friebele, in Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity, and Poling in Glass Waveguides, E. J. Friebele, R. Kashyap, and T. Erdogan, eds., Vol. 33 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), paper FD4.

Glenn, W. H.

Grubsky, V.

V. Grubsky, A. Skorucak, D. S. Starodubov, and J. Feinberg, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 87 (1999).
[CrossRef]

V. Grubsky, D. S. Starodubov, and J. Feinberg, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), 1999 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), paper ThD2.

Guillement, C.

See, for example, H. Aben and C. Guillement, Photo-elasticity of Glass (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1993).
[CrossRef]

Haller, F.

I. Riant and F. Haller, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1464 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lawandy, N. M.

J. P. Bernardin and N. M. Lawandy, Opt. Commun. 79, 194 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Leuenberger, B.

Limberger, H. G.

Meltz, G.

Mizrahi, V.

D. Z. Anderson, V. Mizrahi, T. Erdogan, and A. E. White, Electron. Lett. 29, 566 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Modavis, R. A.

Morey, W. W.

Niay, P.

T. Taunay, P. Niay, P. Bernage, M. Douay, W. X. Xie, D. Pureur, P. Cordier, J. F. Bayon, H. Poignant, E. Delevaque, and B. Poumellec, J. Phys. D 30, 40 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. Poumellec, P. Niay, M. Douay, and J. F. Bayon, J. Phys. D 29, 1842 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Poignant, H.

T. Taunay, P. Niay, P. Bernage, M. Douay, W. X. Xie, D. Pureur, P. Cordier, J. F. Bayon, H. Poignant, E. Delevaque, and B. Poumellec, J. Phys. D 30, 40 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Poole, S. B.

M. G. Sceats, G. R. Atkins, and S. B. Poole, Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 23, 381 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Poumellec, B.

T. Taunay, P. Niay, P. Bernage, M. Douay, W. X. Xie, D. Pureur, P. Cordier, J. F. Bayon, H. Poignant, E. Delevaque, and B. Poumellec, J. Phys. D 30, 40 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. Poumellec, P. Niay, M. Douay, and J. F. Bayon, J. Phys. D 29, 1842 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Pureur, D.

T. Taunay, P. Niay, P. Bernage, M. Douay, W. X. Xie, D. Pureur, P. Cordier, J. F. Bayon, H. Poignant, E. Delevaque, and B. Poumellec, J. Phys. D 30, 40 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Riant, I.

I. Riant and F. Haller, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1464 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Salathé, R. P.

Sceats, M. G.

M. G. Sceats, G. R. Atkins, and S. B. Poole, Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 23, 381 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Skorucak, A.

V. Grubsky, A. Skorucak, D. S. Starodubov, and J. Feinberg, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 87 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Starodubov, D. S.

V. Grubsky, A. Skorucak, D. S. Starodubov, and J. Feinberg, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 87 (1999).
[CrossRef]

V. Grubsky, D. S. Starodubov, and J. Feinberg, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), 1999 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), paper ThD2.

Taunay, T.

T. Taunay, P. Niay, P. Bernage, M. Douay, W. X. Xie, D. Pureur, P. Cordier, J. F. Bayon, H. Poignant, E. Delevaque, and B. Poumellec, J. Phys. D 30, 40 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. Tsai, T. Taunay, and E. J. Friebele, in Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity, and Poling in Glass Waveguides, E. J. Friebele, R. Kashyap, and T. Erdogan, eds., Vol. 33 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), paper FD4.

Tsai, T.

T. Tsai, T. Taunay, and E. J. Friebele, in Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity, and Poling in Glass Waveguides, E. J. Friebele, R. Kashyap, and T. Erdogan, eds., Vol. 33 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), paper FD4.

White, A. E.

D. Z. Anderson, V. Mizrahi, T. Erdogan, and A. E. White, Electron. Lett. 29, 566 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Xie, W. X.

T. Taunay, P. Niay, P. Bernage, M. Douay, W. X. Xie, D. Pureur, P. Cordier, J. F. Bayon, H. Poignant, E. Delevaque, and B. Poumellec, J. Phys. D 30, 40 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci.

M. G. Sceats, G. R. Atkins, and S. B. Poole, Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 23, 381 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

D. Z. Anderson, V. Mizrahi, T. Erdogan, and A. E. White, Electron. Lett. 29, 566 (1993).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

V. Grubsky, A. Skorucak, D. S. Starodubov, and J. Feinberg, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 87 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

I. Riant and F. Haller, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1464 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

J. Phys. D

T. Taunay, P. Niay, P. Bernage, M. Douay, W. X. Xie, D. Pureur, P. Cordier, J. F. Bayon, H. Poignant, E. Delevaque, and B. Poumellec, J. Phys. D 30, 40 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. Poumellec, P. Niay, M. Douay, and J. F. Bayon, J. Phys. D 29, 1842 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc.

C. Fiori and R. A. B. Devine, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 61, 187 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

J. P. Bernardin and N. M. Lawandy, Opt. Commun. 79, 194 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Other

T. Tsai, T. Taunay, and E. J. Friebele, in Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity, and Poling in Glass Waveguides, E. J. Friebele, R. Kashyap, and T. Erdogan, eds., Vol. 33 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), paper FD4.

See, for example, H. Aben and C. Guillement, Photo-elasticity of Glass (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1993).
[CrossRef]

V. Grubsky, D. S. Starodubov, and J. Feinberg, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), 1999 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), paper ThD2.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Refractive-index change versus fluence for standard AT&T fiber exposed with and without strain. A 3.0% strain drastically increases both the photosensitivity and the final index change.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Transmitted He–Ne laser light versus applied strain. Note that the birefringence initially decreases with strain. This implies that initial stress on the core of this AT&T fiber is compressive, and straining the fiber makes it tensile. (Birefringence measurements for the cladding region are shown in the inset.)

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Transmitted He–Ne laser light versus position along AT&T fibers. (a) A grating Λ=320 µm was written in this fiber under 3% strain and then released. (b) This grating was written under no strain. The fibers were sandwiched between two crossed polarizers, and the He–Ne laser beam focused onto the core from the side. The transmitted power oscillates along the fiber because of the UV-induced birefringence. Note that the birefringence changes in the UV-exposed regions are opposite in the fibers written with and without strain.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Isochronal thermal annealing with a 2-min bake at each temperature. The stability of the index change is almost identical in the fibers exposed to UV light while under strain (3.3%) compared with those exposed with no strain.

Equations (2)

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δ=n1-n2d=Cσ1-σ2d,
I=I0 sin2πδ/λ,

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