Abstract

The surface of an organic electro-optic crystal tends to be covered with a degenerate rough layer, which may cause light scattering or unfavorable transmission of light. We demonstrate a novel method of removing this layer and flattening the (001) surface of a 4-dimethylamino-N-methyl-4-stilbazolium tosylate (DAST) crystal on a molecular scale by applying suitable force on the tip of an atomic-force microscope (AFM). When the loading force on the AFM tip is kept near 10 nN, the DAST molecules can be removed layer by layer. This method produced a large, flat terrace of 250,000 nm2, and the molecular-scale flatness of this area was confirmed by AFM observation.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. A. Yokoo, S. Tomaru, I. Yokohama, H. Kobayashi, H. Itoh, and T. Kaino, Nonlinear Opt. 15, 275 (1996).
  2. M. S. Litz, D. C. Judy, G. A. Huttlin, C. Lazard, L. F. Libelo, X.-C. Zhang, and Z. Lu, Proc. SPIE 3158, 72 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. Tomaru, S. Matsumoto, T. Kurihara, H. Suzuki, N. Ooba, and T. Kaino, Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 2583 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. F. Eaton, Science 253, 281 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. H. Minemoto, Y. Ozaki, N. Sonoda, and T. Sasaki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 3565 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  6. H. Nakayama, R. Matsushima, N. Okamoto, A. Mizuno, O. Sugihara, and C. Egami, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 2813 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  7. H. Nakanishi, H. Matsuda, S. Okada, and M. Kato, Proc. Mater. Res. Soc. 1, 97 (1989).
  8. Q. Wu and X.-C. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3523 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  9. F. Pan, G. Knöpfle, Ch. Bosshard, S. Follonier, R. Spreiter, M. S. Wang, and P. Gunter, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 13 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  10. R. Spreiter, Ch. Bosshard, F. Pan, and P. Günter, Opt. Lett. 22, 564 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. G. Knöpfle, R. Schlesser, R. Ducret, and P. Günter, Nonlinear Opt. 9, 143 (1995).
  12. T. Sasaki, Polyfile 33, 35 (1996).
  13. B. A. Fuchs, C. K. Syn, and S. P. Velsko, Appl. Opt. 28, 4465 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. H. Kagawa, M. Sagawa, A. Kakuta, M. Kaji, M. Saeki, and Y. Namba, Appl. Opt. 34, 3421 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. P. E. Burrows, S. R. Forrest, L. S. Sapochak, J. Schwartz, P. Fenter, T. Buma, V. S. Ban, and J. L. Forrest, J. Cryst. Growth 156, 91 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  16. S. R. Forrest, P. E. Burrows, A. Stroustrup, D. Strickland, and V. S. Ban, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1326 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  17. A. Borghesi, A. Sassella, R. Tubino, S. Destri, and W. Porzio, Adv. Mater. 10, 931 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  18. S. Sohma, H. Takahashi, T. Taniuchi, and H. Ito, Chem. Phys. 245, 359 (1999).
  19. F. Pan, M. S. Wong, Ch. Bosshard, and P. Günter, Adv. Mater. 8, 592 (1996).
    [CrossRef]

1999 (1)

S. Sohma, H. Takahashi, T. Taniuchi, and H. Ito, Chem. Phys. 245, 359 (1999).

1998 (1)

A. Borghesi, A. Sassella, R. Tubino, S. Destri, and W. Porzio, Adv. Mater. 10, 931 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

R. Spreiter, Ch. Bosshard, F. Pan, and P. Günter, Opt. Lett. 22, 564 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Litz, D. C. Judy, G. A. Huttlin, C. Lazard, L. F. Libelo, X.-C. Zhang, and Z. Lu, Proc. SPIE 3158, 72 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (6)

A. Yokoo, S. Tomaru, I. Yokohama, H. Kobayashi, H. Itoh, and T. Kaino, Nonlinear Opt. 15, 275 (1996).

H. Nakayama, R. Matsushima, N. Okamoto, A. Mizuno, O. Sugihara, and C. Egami, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 2813 (1996).
[CrossRef]

F. Pan, G. Knöpfle, Ch. Bosshard, S. Follonier, R. Spreiter, M. S. Wang, and P. Gunter, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 13 (1996).
[CrossRef]

F. Pan, M. S. Wong, Ch. Bosshard, and P. Günter, Adv. Mater. 8, 592 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. Sasaki, Polyfile 33, 35 (1996).

S. R. Forrest, P. E. Burrows, A. Stroustrup, D. Strickland, and V. S. Ban, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1326 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (4)

Q. Wu and X.-C. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3523 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. E. Burrows, S. R. Forrest, L. S. Sapochak, J. Schwartz, P. Fenter, T. Buma, V. S. Ban, and J. L. Forrest, J. Cryst. Growth 156, 91 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. Kagawa, M. Sagawa, A. Kakuta, M. Kaji, M. Saeki, and Y. Namba, Appl. Opt. 34, 3421 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Knöpfle, R. Schlesser, R. Ducret, and P. Günter, Nonlinear Opt. 9, 143 (1995).

1993 (1)

H. Minemoto, Y. Ozaki, N. Sonoda, and T. Sasaki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 3565 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991 (2)

S. Tomaru, S. Matsumoto, T. Kurihara, H. Suzuki, N. Ooba, and T. Kaino, Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 2583 (1991).
[CrossRef]

D. F. Eaton, Science 253, 281 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (2)

H. Nakanishi, H. Matsuda, S. Okada, and M. Kato, Proc. Mater. Res. Soc. 1, 97 (1989).

B. A. Fuchs, C. K. Syn, and S. P. Velsko, Appl. Opt. 28, 4465 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ban, V. S.

S. R. Forrest, P. E. Burrows, A. Stroustrup, D. Strickland, and V. S. Ban, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1326 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. E. Burrows, S. R. Forrest, L. S. Sapochak, J. Schwartz, P. Fenter, T. Buma, V. S. Ban, and J. L. Forrest, J. Cryst. Growth 156, 91 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Borghesi, A.

A. Borghesi, A. Sassella, R. Tubino, S. Destri, and W. Porzio, Adv. Mater. 10, 931 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bosshard, Ch.

R. Spreiter, Ch. Bosshard, F. Pan, and P. Günter, Opt. Lett. 22, 564 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Pan, M. S. Wong, Ch. Bosshard, and P. Günter, Adv. Mater. 8, 592 (1996).
[CrossRef]

F. Pan, G. Knöpfle, Ch. Bosshard, S. Follonier, R. Spreiter, M. S. Wang, and P. Gunter, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 13 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Buma, T.

P. E. Burrows, S. R. Forrest, L. S. Sapochak, J. Schwartz, P. Fenter, T. Buma, V. S. Ban, and J. L. Forrest, J. Cryst. Growth 156, 91 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Burrows, P. E.

S. R. Forrest, P. E. Burrows, A. Stroustrup, D. Strickland, and V. S. Ban, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1326 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. E. Burrows, S. R. Forrest, L. S. Sapochak, J. Schwartz, P. Fenter, T. Buma, V. S. Ban, and J. L. Forrest, J. Cryst. Growth 156, 91 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Destri, S.

A. Borghesi, A. Sassella, R. Tubino, S. Destri, and W. Porzio, Adv. Mater. 10, 931 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ducret, R.

G. Knöpfle, R. Schlesser, R. Ducret, and P. Günter, Nonlinear Opt. 9, 143 (1995).

Eaton, D. F.

D. F. Eaton, Science 253, 281 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Egami, C.

H. Nakayama, R. Matsushima, N. Okamoto, A. Mizuno, O. Sugihara, and C. Egami, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 2813 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Fenter, P.

P. E. Burrows, S. R. Forrest, L. S. Sapochak, J. Schwartz, P. Fenter, T. Buma, V. S. Ban, and J. L. Forrest, J. Cryst. Growth 156, 91 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Follonier, S.

F. Pan, G. Knöpfle, Ch. Bosshard, S. Follonier, R. Spreiter, M. S. Wang, and P. Gunter, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 13 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Forrest, J. L.

P. E. Burrows, S. R. Forrest, L. S. Sapochak, J. Schwartz, P. Fenter, T. Buma, V. S. Ban, and J. L. Forrest, J. Cryst. Growth 156, 91 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Forrest, S. R.

S. R. Forrest, P. E. Burrows, A. Stroustrup, D. Strickland, and V. S. Ban, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1326 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. E. Burrows, S. R. Forrest, L. S. Sapochak, J. Schwartz, P. Fenter, T. Buma, V. S. Ban, and J. L. Forrest, J. Cryst. Growth 156, 91 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Fuchs, B. A.

Gunter, P.

F. Pan, G. Knöpfle, Ch. Bosshard, S. Follonier, R. Spreiter, M. S. Wang, and P. Gunter, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 13 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Günter, P.

R. Spreiter, Ch. Bosshard, F. Pan, and P. Günter, Opt. Lett. 22, 564 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Pan, M. S. Wong, Ch. Bosshard, and P. Günter, Adv. Mater. 8, 592 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. Knöpfle, R. Schlesser, R. Ducret, and P. Günter, Nonlinear Opt. 9, 143 (1995).

Huttlin, G. A.

M. S. Litz, D. C. Judy, G. A. Huttlin, C. Lazard, L. F. Libelo, X.-C. Zhang, and Z. Lu, Proc. SPIE 3158, 72 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ito, H.

S. Sohma, H. Takahashi, T. Taniuchi, and H. Ito, Chem. Phys. 245, 359 (1999).

Itoh, H.

A. Yokoo, S. Tomaru, I. Yokohama, H. Kobayashi, H. Itoh, and T. Kaino, Nonlinear Opt. 15, 275 (1996).

Judy, D. C.

M. S. Litz, D. C. Judy, G. A. Huttlin, C. Lazard, L. F. Libelo, X.-C. Zhang, and Z. Lu, Proc. SPIE 3158, 72 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kagawa, H.

Kaino, T.

A. Yokoo, S. Tomaru, I. Yokohama, H. Kobayashi, H. Itoh, and T. Kaino, Nonlinear Opt. 15, 275 (1996).

S. Tomaru, S. Matsumoto, T. Kurihara, H. Suzuki, N. Ooba, and T. Kaino, Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 2583 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kaji, M.

Kakuta, A.

Kato, M.

H. Nakanishi, H. Matsuda, S. Okada, and M. Kato, Proc. Mater. Res. Soc. 1, 97 (1989).

Knöpfle, G.

F. Pan, G. Knöpfle, Ch. Bosshard, S. Follonier, R. Spreiter, M. S. Wang, and P. Gunter, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 13 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. Knöpfle, R. Schlesser, R. Ducret, and P. Günter, Nonlinear Opt. 9, 143 (1995).

Kobayashi, H.

A. Yokoo, S. Tomaru, I. Yokohama, H. Kobayashi, H. Itoh, and T. Kaino, Nonlinear Opt. 15, 275 (1996).

Kurihara, T.

S. Tomaru, S. Matsumoto, T. Kurihara, H. Suzuki, N. Ooba, and T. Kaino, Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 2583 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Lazard, C.

M. S. Litz, D. C. Judy, G. A. Huttlin, C. Lazard, L. F. Libelo, X.-C. Zhang, and Z. Lu, Proc. SPIE 3158, 72 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Libelo, L. F.

M. S. Litz, D. C. Judy, G. A. Huttlin, C. Lazard, L. F. Libelo, X.-C. Zhang, and Z. Lu, Proc. SPIE 3158, 72 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Litz, M. S.

M. S. Litz, D. C. Judy, G. A. Huttlin, C. Lazard, L. F. Libelo, X.-C. Zhang, and Z. Lu, Proc. SPIE 3158, 72 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Z.

M. S. Litz, D. C. Judy, G. A. Huttlin, C. Lazard, L. F. Libelo, X.-C. Zhang, and Z. Lu, Proc. SPIE 3158, 72 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Matsuda, H.

H. Nakanishi, H. Matsuda, S. Okada, and M. Kato, Proc. Mater. Res. Soc. 1, 97 (1989).

Matsumoto, S.

S. Tomaru, S. Matsumoto, T. Kurihara, H. Suzuki, N. Ooba, and T. Kaino, Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 2583 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Matsushima, R.

H. Nakayama, R. Matsushima, N. Okamoto, A. Mizuno, O. Sugihara, and C. Egami, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 2813 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Minemoto, H.

H. Minemoto, Y. Ozaki, N. Sonoda, and T. Sasaki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 3565 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Mizuno, A.

H. Nakayama, R. Matsushima, N. Okamoto, A. Mizuno, O. Sugihara, and C. Egami, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 2813 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nakanishi, H.

H. Nakanishi, H. Matsuda, S. Okada, and M. Kato, Proc. Mater. Res. Soc. 1, 97 (1989).

Nakayama, H.

H. Nakayama, R. Matsushima, N. Okamoto, A. Mizuno, O. Sugihara, and C. Egami, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 2813 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Namba, Y.

Okada, S.

H. Nakanishi, H. Matsuda, S. Okada, and M. Kato, Proc. Mater. Res. Soc. 1, 97 (1989).

Okamoto, N.

H. Nakayama, R. Matsushima, N. Okamoto, A. Mizuno, O. Sugihara, and C. Egami, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 2813 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ooba, N.

S. Tomaru, S. Matsumoto, T. Kurihara, H. Suzuki, N. Ooba, and T. Kaino, Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 2583 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Ozaki, Y.

H. Minemoto, Y. Ozaki, N. Sonoda, and T. Sasaki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 3565 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Pan, F.

R. Spreiter, Ch. Bosshard, F. Pan, and P. Günter, Opt. Lett. 22, 564 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Pan, M. S. Wong, Ch. Bosshard, and P. Günter, Adv. Mater. 8, 592 (1996).
[CrossRef]

F. Pan, G. Knöpfle, Ch. Bosshard, S. Follonier, R. Spreiter, M. S. Wang, and P. Gunter, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 13 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Porzio, W.

A. Borghesi, A. Sassella, R. Tubino, S. Destri, and W. Porzio, Adv. Mater. 10, 931 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Saeki, M.

Sagawa, M.

Sapochak, L. S.

P. E. Burrows, S. R. Forrest, L. S. Sapochak, J. Schwartz, P. Fenter, T. Buma, V. S. Ban, and J. L. Forrest, J. Cryst. Growth 156, 91 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sasaki, T.

T. Sasaki, Polyfile 33, 35 (1996).

H. Minemoto, Y. Ozaki, N. Sonoda, and T. Sasaki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 3565 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Sassella, A.

A. Borghesi, A. Sassella, R. Tubino, S. Destri, and W. Porzio, Adv. Mater. 10, 931 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Schlesser, R.

G. Knöpfle, R. Schlesser, R. Ducret, and P. Günter, Nonlinear Opt. 9, 143 (1995).

Schwartz, J.

P. E. Burrows, S. R. Forrest, L. S. Sapochak, J. Schwartz, P. Fenter, T. Buma, V. S. Ban, and J. L. Forrest, J. Cryst. Growth 156, 91 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sohma, S.

S. Sohma, H. Takahashi, T. Taniuchi, and H. Ito, Chem. Phys. 245, 359 (1999).

Sonoda, N.

H. Minemoto, Y. Ozaki, N. Sonoda, and T. Sasaki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 3565 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Spreiter, R.

R. Spreiter, Ch. Bosshard, F. Pan, and P. Günter, Opt. Lett. 22, 564 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Pan, G. Knöpfle, Ch. Bosshard, S. Follonier, R. Spreiter, M. S. Wang, and P. Gunter, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 13 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Strickland, D.

S. R. Forrest, P. E. Burrows, A. Stroustrup, D. Strickland, and V. S. Ban, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1326 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Stroustrup, A.

S. R. Forrest, P. E. Burrows, A. Stroustrup, D. Strickland, and V. S. Ban, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1326 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sugihara, O.

H. Nakayama, R. Matsushima, N. Okamoto, A. Mizuno, O. Sugihara, and C. Egami, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 2813 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, H.

S. Tomaru, S. Matsumoto, T. Kurihara, H. Suzuki, N. Ooba, and T. Kaino, Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 2583 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Syn, C. K.

Takahashi, H.

S. Sohma, H. Takahashi, T. Taniuchi, and H. Ito, Chem. Phys. 245, 359 (1999).

Taniuchi, T.

S. Sohma, H. Takahashi, T. Taniuchi, and H. Ito, Chem. Phys. 245, 359 (1999).

Tomaru, S.

A. Yokoo, S. Tomaru, I. Yokohama, H. Kobayashi, H. Itoh, and T. Kaino, Nonlinear Opt. 15, 275 (1996).

S. Tomaru, S. Matsumoto, T. Kurihara, H. Suzuki, N. Ooba, and T. Kaino, Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 2583 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Tubino, R.

A. Borghesi, A. Sassella, R. Tubino, S. Destri, and W. Porzio, Adv. Mater. 10, 931 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Velsko, S. P.

Wang, M. S.

F. Pan, G. Knöpfle, Ch. Bosshard, S. Follonier, R. Spreiter, M. S. Wang, and P. Gunter, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 13 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wong, M. S.

F. Pan, M. S. Wong, Ch. Bosshard, and P. Günter, Adv. Mater. 8, 592 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Q.

Q. Wu and X.-C. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3523 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Yokohama, I.

A. Yokoo, S. Tomaru, I. Yokohama, H. Kobayashi, H. Itoh, and T. Kaino, Nonlinear Opt. 15, 275 (1996).

Yokoo, A.

A. Yokoo, S. Tomaru, I. Yokohama, H. Kobayashi, H. Itoh, and T. Kaino, Nonlinear Opt. 15, 275 (1996).

Zhang, X.-C.

M. S. Litz, D. C. Judy, G. A. Huttlin, C. Lazard, L. F. Libelo, X.-C. Zhang, and Z. Lu, Proc. SPIE 3158, 72 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Q. Wu and X.-C. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3523 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (2)

A. Borghesi, A. Sassella, R. Tubino, S. Destri, and W. Porzio, Adv. Mater. 10, 931 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. Pan, M. S. Wong, Ch. Bosshard, and P. Günter, Adv. Mater. 8, 592 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (6)

H. Minemoto, Y. Ozaki, N. Sonoda, and T. Sasaki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 3565 (1993).
[CrossRef]

H. Nakayama, R. Matsushima, N. Okamoto, A. Mizuno, O. Sugihara, and C. Egami, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 2813 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Forrest, P. E. Burrows, A. Stroustrup, D. Strickland, and V. S. Ban, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1326 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Tomaru, S. Matsumoto, T. Kurihara, H. Suzuki, N. Ooba, and T. Kaino, Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 2583 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Q. Wu and X.-C. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3523 (1995).
[CrossRef]

F. Pan, G. Knöpfle, Ch. Bosshard, S. Follonier, R. Spreiter, M. S. Wang, and P. Gunter, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 13 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. (1)

S. Sohma, H. Takahashi, T. Taniuchi, and H. Ito, Chem. Phys. 245, 359 (1999).

J. Cryst. Growth (1)

P. E. Burrows, S. R. Forrest, L. S. Sapochak, J. Schwartz, P. Fenter, T. Buma, V. S. Ban, and J. L. Forrest, J. Cryst. Growth 156, 91 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nonlinear Opt. (2)

G. Knöpfle, R. Schlesser, R. Ducret, and P. Günter, Nonlinear Opt. 9, 143 (1995).

A. Yokoo, S. Tomaru, I. Yokohama, H. Kobayashi, H. Itoh, and T. Kaino, Nonlinear Opt. 15, 275 (1996).

Opt. Lett. (1)

Polyfile (1)

T. Sasaki, Polyfile 33, 35 (1996).

Proc. Mater. Res. Soc. (1)

H. Nakanishi, H. Matsuda, S. Okada, and M. Kato, Proc. Mater. Res. Soc. 1, 97 (1989).

Proc. SPIE (1)

M. S. Litz, D. C. Judy, G. A. Huttlin, C. Lazard, L. F. Libelo, X.-C. Zhang, and Z. Lu, Proc. SPIE 3158, 72 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

D. F. Eaton, Science 253, 281 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Change in the (001) surface of DAST as a result of scanning with an AFM tip. The scales are 400 nm in the x direction, 400 nm in the y direction, and 20 nm in the z direction. (a) Topographic image of the first scan. The surface is covered with dust and degenerate layers, and there is no particular structure. The applied force is 5 nN, and the rms roughness is 0.52 nm. (b) Five step terraces appear after eight scans of 20 nN.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Large terrace on the DAST (001) surface, made by an AFM tip. The scales are x=700 nm, y=700 nm, and z=10 nm. The rms roughness is 0.45 nm for the whole area shown but is 0.12 nm in the 250,000nm2-area terrace at the top left-hand corner.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Topography of a step-terrace structure of DAST. The scales are x=500 nm, y=500 nm, and z=30 nm. (b) FFM image on scales of x=500 nm, y=500 nm, and z=0.2 V. The friction force changes from a large to a small value alternately layer by layer.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Molecular arrangement of the DAST (001) surface (ab plane): (a) one-pair layer, (b) the next-pair layer. The darker molecules are DAS (cation), and the lighter molecules are tosylate (anion). The a-axis length of the rectangular cell is 1.038 nm, and the b-axis length is 1.131 nm. These lengths were obtained by x-ray analysis. The c axis is 1.786 nm and is perpendicular to the b axis.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Molecular image of DAST on a terrace. Noise is removed and the original image is shown as an inset in the top left-hand corner. The scales of both images are x=8 nm, y=8 nm, and z=0.5 nm. The rms roughness is 0.04 nm after and 0.08 nm before noise reduction. A bright spot corresponds to one molecule, even though the real molecule is a long chain of many atoms. We believe that the darker regions are the central position among four DAS molecules and the bright spots are generated when the AFM tip is over the higher atom group, likely a benzene ring in the stilbazolium.

Metrics