Abstract

We report a novel method for selective laser energy delivery into biological tissues based on refractive-index differences. As a specific example, Ho:YAG laser energy is delivered into fat preferentially over other soft tissue, despite the fact that water has a higher absorption coefficient at this wavelength than fat.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. F. M. Grazer and R. H. de Jong, Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 105, 436 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  2. D. Rattner, Department of Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Mass. 02114 (personal communication, 1997).
  3. R. J. Verbunt, M. A. Fitzmaurice, J. R. Kramer, N. B. Ratliff, C. Kittrell, P. Taroni, R. M. Cothren, J. Baraga, and M. Feld, J. Am. Heart Assoc. 123, 208 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  4. F. P. Bolin, L. E. Preuss, R. C. Taylor, and R. J. Ference, Appl. Opt. 28, 2297 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. H. Li and S. Xie, Appl. Opt. 35, 1793 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. D. M. Wieliczka, S. Weng, and M. R. Querry, Appl. Opt. 28, 1714 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. Ealing Company Optical Catalog (Ealing, Hollistown, Mass., 1995).
  8. A. G. Macdonald, Br. J. Anaesth. 73, 847 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. M. R. Prince, G. M. LaMuraglia, P. Teng, T. F. Deutsch, and R. R. Anderson, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 1783 (1987).
    [CrossRef]

2000 (1)

F. M. Grazer and R. H. de Jong, Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 105, 436 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1994 (1)

A. G. Macdonald, Br. J. Anaesth. 73, 847 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

R. J. Verbunt, M. A. Fitzmaurice, J. R. Kramer, N. B. Ratliff, C. Kittrell, P. Taroni, R. M. Cothren, J. Baraga, and M. Feld, J. Am. Heart Assoc. 123, 208 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1989 (2)

1987 (1)

M. R. Prince, G. M. LaMuraglia, P. Teng, T. F. Deutsch, and R. R. Anderson, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 1783 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, R. R.

M. R. Prince, G. M. LaMuraglia, P. Teng, T. F. Deutsch, and R. R. Anderson, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 1783 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Baraga, J.

R. J. Verbunt, M. A. Fitzmaurice, J. R. Kramer, N. B. Ratliff, C. Kittrell, P. Taroni, R. M. Cothren, J. Baraga, and M. Feld, J. Am. Heart Assoc. 123, 208 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Bolin, F. P.

Cothren, R. M.

R. J. Verbunt, M. A. Fitzmaurice, J. R. Kramer, N. B. Ratliff, C. Kittrell, P. Taroni, R. M. Cothren, J. Baraga, and M. Feld, J. Am. Heart Assoc. 123, 208 (1992).
[CrossRef]

de Jong, R. H.

F. M. Grazer and R. H. de Jong, Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 105, 436 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Deutsch, T. F.

M. R. Prince, G. M. LaMuraglia, P. Teng, T. F. Deutsch, and R. R. Anderson, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 1783 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Feld, M.

R. J. Verbunt, M. A. Fitzmaurice, J. R. Kramer, N. B. Ratliff, C. Kittrell, P. Taroni, R. M. Cothren, J. Baraga, and M. Feld, J. Am. Heart Assoc. 123, 208 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ference, R. J.

Fitzmaurice, M. A.

R. J. Verbunt, M. A. Fitzmaurice, J. R. Kramer, N. B. Ratliff, C. Kittrell, P. Taroni, R. M. Cothren, J. Baraga, and M. Feld, J. Am. Heart Assoc. 123, 208 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Grazer, F. M.

F. M. Grazer and R. H. de Jong, Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 105, 436 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kittrell, C.

R. J. Verbunt, M. A. Fitzmaurice, J. R. Kramer, N. B. Ratliff, C. Kittrell, P. Taroni, R. M. Cothren, J. Baraga, and M. Feld, J. Am. Heart Assoc. 123, 208 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kramer, J. R.

R. J. Verbunt, M. A. Fitzmaurice, J. R. Kramer, N. B. Ratliff, C. Kittrell, P. Taroni, R. M. Cothren, J. Baraga, and M. Feld, J. Am. Heart Assoc. 123, 208 (1992).
[CrossRef]

LaMuraglia, G. M.

M. R. Prince, G. M. LaMuraglia, P. Teng, T. F. Deutsch, and R. R. Anderson, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 1783 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Li, H.

Macdonald, A. G.

A. G. Macdonald, Br. J. Anaesth. 73, 847 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Preuss, L. E.

Prince, M. R.

M. R. Prince, G. M. LaMuraglia, P. Teng, T. F. Deutsch, and R. R. Anderson, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 1783 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Querry, M. R.

Ratliff, N. B.

R. J. Verbunt, M. A. Fitzmaurice, J. R. Kramer, N. B. Ratliff, C. Kittrell, P. Taroni, R. M. Cothren, J. Baraga, and M. Feld, J. Am. Heart Assoc. 123, 208 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Rattner, D.

D. Rattner, Department of Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Mass. 02114 (personal communication, 1997).

Taroni, P.

R. J. Verbunt, M. A. Fitzmaurice, J. R. Kramer, N. B. Ratliff, C. Kittrell, P. Taroni, R. M. Cothren, J. Baraga, and M. Feld, J. Am. Heart Assoc. 123, 208 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, R. C.

Teng, P.

M. R. Prince, G. M. LaMuraglia, P. Teng, T. F. Deutsch, and R. R. Anderson, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 1783 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Verbunt, R. J.

R. J. Verbunt, M. A. Fitzmaurice, J. R. Kramer, N. B. Ratliff, C. Kittrell, P. Taroni, R. M. Cothren, J. Baraga, and M. Feld, J. Am. Heart Assoc. 123, 208 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Weng, S.

Wieliczka, D. M.

Xie, S.

Appl. Opt. (3)

Br. J. Anaesth. (1)

A. G. Macdonald, Br. J. Anaesth. 73, 847 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. R. Prince, G. M. LaMuraglia, P. Teng, T. F. Deutsch, and R. R. Anderson, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 1783 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Heart Assoc. (1)

R. J. Verbunt, M. A. Fitzmaurice, J. R. Kramer, N. B. Ratliff, C. Kittrell, P. Taroni, R. M. Cothren, J. Baraga, and M. Feld, J. Am. Heart Assoc. 123, 208 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Plast. Reconstr. Surg. (1)

F. M. Grazer and R. H. de Jong, Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 105, 436 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

D. Rattner, Department of Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Mass. 02114 (personal communication, 1997).

Ealing Company Optical Catalog (Ealing, Hollistown, Mass., 1995).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup: pol/atten, polarizer–attenuator.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Reflectance of 2.09µm laser radiation at (triangles) the sapphire–corn oil, (squares) sapphire–water, and (circles) sapphire–air interfaces. The curves show the theoretical predictions obtained with Eq. (1) and the values in Table 1.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Reflectance of 2.09µm laser radiation at the (squares) sapphire–muscle fat and (circles) sapphire–water interfaces.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Calculated reflectance of 2.79µm laser radiation at the sapphire–corn oil and sapphire–water interfaces.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Optical Properties at Two Wavelengths (in micrometers)

Equations (1)

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Rs=n1 cos θ-n2*2-n12 sin2 θ1/2n1 cos θ+n2*2-n12 sin2 θ1/22,

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