Abstract

A new nonlinear Raman spectroscopy technique for trace-gas detection was proposed and demonstrated. The technique involved the use of a thermal-lens detection scheme to monitor thermal emission from the stimulated Raman process. We termed this technique thermal-lens Raman spectroscopy, and it was combined with a novel scheme involving a nonlinear Raman spectroscopy without a tunable laser. This technique was applied to detecting trace hydrogen molecules in the atmosphere by use of a pulsed Nd:YAG laser and a continuous-wave He–Ne probe laser. A detection limit of 9 parts in 106 was attained.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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  1. Y. Oki, N. Kawada, T. Ogawa, Y. Abe, and M. Maede, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, 1172 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  2. Y. Oki, N. Kawada, Y. Abe, and M. Maeda, Opt. Commun. 61, 57 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  3. D. R. Siebert, G. A. West, and J. J. Barrett, Appl. Opt. 19, 53 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. J. J. Barrett and M. J. Berry, Appl. Phys. Lett. 34, 144 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. Owyoung, C. W. Patterson, and R. S. McDowell, Chem. Phys. Lett. 59, 156 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Long, R. Swofford, and A. Albrecht, Science 191, 183 (1976).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. K. Miyaichi, T. Imasaka, and N. Ishibashi, Anal. Chem. Acta 124, 381 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  8. T. Imasaka and N. Ishibashi, Trends Anal. Chem. 1, 273 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Y. Hirakawa, T. Tomooka, and T. Imasaka, Appl. Phys. B 70, 355 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. Yariv, Quantum Electronics (Wiley, New York, 1967).
  11. S. Maeda, Y. Adachi, and R. Igarashi, Bunko Kenkyu 28, 353 (1979) [in Japanese].
    [CrossRef]
  12. A. Twarowski and D. Kliger, Chem. Phys. 20, 253 (1977).
    [CrossRef]

2000 (1)

Y. Hirakawa, T. Tomooka, and T. Imasaka, Appl. Phys. B 70, 355 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

Y. Oki, N. Kawada, Y. Abe, and M. Maeda, Opt. Commun. 61, 57 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

Y. Oki, N. Kawada, T. Ogawa, Y. Abe, and M. Maede, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, 1172 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

T. Imasaka and N. Ishibashi, Trends Anal. Chem. 1, 273 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1980 (2)

K. Miyaichi, T. Imasaka, and N. Ishibashi, Anal. Chem. Acta 124, 381 (1980).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Siebert, G. A. West, and J. J. Barrett, Appl. Opt. 19, 53 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1979 (2)

J. J. Barrett and M. J. Berry, Appl. Phys. Lett. 34, 144 (1979).
[CrossRef]

S. Maeda, Y. Adachi, and R. Igarashi, Bunko Kenkyu 28, 353 (1979) [in Japanese].
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

A. Owyoung, C. W. Patterson, and R. S. McDowell, Chem. Phys. Lett. 59, 156 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

A. Twarowski and D. Kliger, Chem. Phys. 20, 253 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

M. Long, R. Swofford, and A. Albrecht, Science 191, 183 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Abe, Y.

Y. Oki, N. Kawada, Y. Abe, and M. Maeda, Opt. Commun. 61, 57 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. Oki, N. Kawada, T. Ogawa, Y. Abe, and M. Maede, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, 1172 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Adachi, Y.

S. Maeda, Y. Adachi, and R. Igarashi, Bunko Kenkyu 28, 353 (1979) [in Japanese].
[CrossRef]

Albrecht, A.

M. Long, R. Swofford, and A. Albrecht, Science 191, 183 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barrett, J. J.

Berry, M. J.

J. J. Barrett and M. J. Berry, Appl. Phys. Lett. 34, 144 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Hirakawa, Y.

Y. Hirakawa, T. Tomooka, and T. Imasaka, Appl. Phys. B 70, 355 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Igarashi, R.

S. Maeda, Y. Adachi, and R. Igarashi, Bunko Kenkyu 28, 353 (1979) [in Japanese].
[CrossRef]

Imasaka, T.

Y. Hirakawa, T. Tomooka, and T. Imasaka, Appl. Phys. B 70, 355 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Imasaka and N. Ishibashi, Trends Anal. Chem. 1, 273 (1982).
[CrossRef]

K. Miyaichi, T. Imasaka, and N. Ishibashi, Anal. Chem. Acta 124, 381 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Ishibashi, N.

T. Imasaka and N. Ishibashi, Trends Anal. Chem. 1, 273 (1982).
[CrossRef]

K. Miyaichi, T. Imasaka, and N. Ishibashi, Anal. Chem. Acta 124, 381 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Kawada, N.

Y. Oki, N. Kawada, Y. Abe, and M. Maeda, Opt. Commun. 61, 57 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. Oki, N. Kawada, T. Ogawa, Y. Abe, and M. Maede, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, 1172 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kliger, D.

A. Twarowski and D. Kliger, Chem. Phys. 20, 253 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Long, M.

M. Long, R. Swofford, and A. Albrecht, Science 191, 183 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maeda, M.

Y. Oki, N. Kawada, Y. Abe, and M. Maeda, Opt. Commun. 61, 57 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Maeda, S.

S. Maeda, Y. Adachi, and R. Igarashi, Bunko Kenkyu 28, 353 (1979) [in Japanese].
[CrossRef]

Maede, M.

Y. Oki, N. Kawada, T. Ogawa, Y. Abe, and M. Maede, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, 1172 (1997).
[CrossRef]

McDowell, R. S.

A. Owyoung, C. W. Patterson, and R. S. McDowell, Chem. Phys. Lett. 59, 156 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Miyaichi, K.

K. Miyaichi, T. Imasaka, and N. Ishibashi, Anal. Chem. Acta 124, 381 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Ogawa, T.

Y. Oki, N. Kawada, T. Ogawa, Y. Abe, and M. Maede, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, 1172 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Oki, Y.

Y. Oki, N. Kawada, Y. Abe, and M. Maeda, Opt. Commun. 61, 57 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. Oki, N. Kawada, T. Ogawa, Y. Abe, and M. Maede, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, 1172 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Owyoung, A.

A. Owyoung, C. W. Patterson, and R. S. McDowell, Chem. Phys. Lett. 59, 156 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Patterson, C. W.

A. Owyoung, C. W. Patterson, and R. S. McDowell, Chem. Phys. Lett. 59, 156 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Siebert, D. R.

Swofford, R.

M. Long, R. Swofford, and A. Albrecht, Science 191, 183 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tomooka, T.

Y. Hirakawa, T. Tomooka, and T. Imasaka, Appl. Phys. B 70, 355 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Twarowski, A.

A. Twarowski and D. Kliger, Chem. Phys. 20, 253 (1977).
[CrossRef]

West, G. A.

Yariv, A.

A. Yariv, Quantum Electronics (Wiley, New York, 1967).

Anal. Chem. Acta (1)

K. Miyaichi, T. Imasaka, and N. Ishibashi, Anal. Chem. Acta 124, 381 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

Y. Hirakawa, T. Tomooka, and T. Imasaka, Appl. Phys. B 70, 355 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

J. J. Barrett and M. J. Berry, Appl. Phys. Lett. 34, 144 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Bunko Kenkyu (1)

S. Maeda, Y. Adachi, and R. Igarashi, Bunko Kenkyu 28, 353 (1979) [in Japanese].
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. (1)

A. Twarowski and D. Kliger, Chem. Phys. 20, 253 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

A. Owyoung, C. W. Patterson, and R. S. McDowell, Chem. Phys. Lett. 59, 156 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

Y. Oki, N. Kawada, T. Ogawa, Y. Abe, and M. Maede, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, 1172 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

Y. Oki, N. Kawada, Y. Abe, and M. Maeda, Opt. Commun. 61, 57 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

M. Long, R. Swofford, and A. Albrecht, Science 191, 183 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Trends Anal. Chem. (1)

T. Imasaka and N. Ishibashi, Trends Anal. Chem. 1, 273 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

A. Yariv, Quantum Electronics (Wiley, New York, 1967).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup for H2 detection by TLRS. SHG, second-harmonic generator.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Probe-laser beam profiles (a) without and (b) with injection of pump beams.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

TLRS signal intensities as a function of the product of the input pump energies at ω1 and ω2 waves. Open circles, experimental results; dashed line, theoretical fit.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

TLRS signal energies as a function of H2 concentration. The dashed line corresponds to background noise.

Equations (4)

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Ith=ηβNωRI1t,zI2t,zL,
β=32πn1n2c22χ,
1f=8βlkw6dndT2π21+4t/tc-20tI1I2dt,
ΔII02zfβE1E2lzkw6dndT,

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