Abstract

A simple technique for fabrication of nonlinear gratings in polymer films, based on simultaneous embossing and poling, is proposed and demonstrated. A master grating consisting of a metal electrode with a dielectric die was fabricated and used for repeated embossing of the grating structures into nonlinear optical polymers at elevated temperatures. At the same time, we applied high voltage to the polymer films to induce second-order nonlinearity. The grating profile and the nonlinearity were estimated, as well as the mass productivity of nonlinear gratings.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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  1. K. D. Singer, J. E. Sohn, and S. J. Lalama, Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 248 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  2. G. Khanarian, R. A. Norwood, D. Haas, B. Feuer, and D. Karim, Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 977 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. I. Thackara, G. F. Lipscomb, M. A. Stiller, A. J. Ticknor, and R. Lytel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1031 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  4. F. Kajzar, G. Blau, and G. Vitrant, in Proceedings of the Polymer Optical Fiber Conference ’97 (POF’97) (Information Gatekeepers Group, Boston, Mass., 1997), p. 90.
  5. G. L. J. A. Rikken, C. J. E. Seppen, and S. Nijhuis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 435 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  6. H. Nakayama, O. Sugihara, and N. Okamoto, Opt. Lett. 22, 1541 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  7. X. Ni, M. Nakanishi, O. Sugihara, and N. Okamoto, Opt. Rev. 5, 9 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. Tomaru, T. Watanabe, M. Hikita, M. Amano, Y. Shuto, I. Yokohama, T. Kaino, and N. Asobe, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1760 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. A. Rogers, M. Meier, A. Dodabalapur, E. J. Laskowski, and M. A. Cappuzzo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3257 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  10. T. Matsuura, N. Yamada, S. Nishi, and Y. Hasuda, Macromolecules 26, 419 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  11. T. Lippert, T. Gerber, A. Wokaun, D. J. Funk, H. Fukumura, and M. Goto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1018 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  12. G. Blau, E. Popov, F. Kajzar, A. Raimond, J. F. Roux, and J. L. Coutaz, Opt. Lett. 20, 1101 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. M. Ozawa, H. Nakayama, O. Sugihara, and N. Okamoto, Nonlinear Opt. 15, 171 (1996).

1999 (2)

J. A. Rogers, M. Meier, A. Dodabalapur, E. J. Laskowski, and M. A. Cappuzzo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3257 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. Lippert, T. Gerber, A. Wokaun, D. J. Funk, H. Fukumura, and M. Goto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1018 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

X. Ni, M. Nakanishi, O. Sugihara, and N. Okamoto, Opt. Rev. 5, 9 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1996 (2)

M. Ozawa, H. Nakayama, O. Sugihara, and N. Okamoto, Nonlinear Opt. 15, 171 (1996).

S. Tomaru, T. Watanabe, M. Hikita, M. Amano, Y. Shuto, I. Yokohama, T. Kaino, and N. Asobe, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1760 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

1993 (1)

T. Matsuura, N. Yamada, S. Nishi, and Y. Hasuda, Macromolecules 26, 419 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

G. L. J. A. Rikken, C. J. E. Seppen, and S. Nijhuis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 435 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

G. Khanarian, R. A. Norwood, D. Haas, B. Feuer, and D. Karim, Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 977 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

J. I. Thackara, G. F. Lipscomb, M. A. Stiller, A. J. Ticknor, and R. Lytel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1031 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

K. D. Singer, J. E. Sohn, and S. J. Lalama, Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 248 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Amano, M.

S. Tomaru, T. Watanabe, M. Hikita, M. Amano, Y. Shuto, I. Yokohama, T. Kaino, and N. Asobe, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1760 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Asobe, N.

S. Tomaru, T. Watanabe, M. Hikita, M. Amano, Y. Shuto, I. Yokohama, T. Kaino, and N. Asobe, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1760 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Blau, G.

G. Blau, E. Popov, F. Kajzar, A. Raimond, J. F. Roux, and J. L. Coutaz, Opt. Lett. 20, 1101 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Kajzar, G. Blau, and G. Vitrant, in Proceedings of the Polymer Optical Fiber Conference ’97 (POF’97) (Information Gatekeepers Group, Boston, Mass., 1997), p. 90.

Cappuzzo, M. A.

J. A. Rogers, M. Meier, A. Dodabalapur, E. J. Laskowski, and M. A. Cappuzzo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3257 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Coutaz, J. L.

Dodabalapur, A.

J. A. Rogers, M. Meier, A. Dodabalapur, E. J. Laskowski, and M. A. Cappuzzo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3257 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Feuer, B.

G. Khanarian, R. A. Norwood, D. Haas, B. Feuer, and D. Karim, Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 977 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Fukumura, H.

T. Lippert, T. Gerber, A. Wokaun, D. J. Funk, H. Fukumura, and M. Goto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1018 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Funk, D. J.

T. Lippert, T. Gerber, A. Wokaun, D. J. Funk, H. Fukumura, and M. Goto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1018 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gerber, T.

T. Lippert, T. Gerber, A. Wokaun, D. J. Funk, H. Fukumura, and M. Goto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1018 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Goto, M.

T. Lippert, T. Gerber, A. Wokaun, D. J. Funk, H. Fukumura, and M. Goto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1018 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Haas, D.

G. Khanarian, R. A. Norwood, D. Haas, B. Feuer, and D. Karim, Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 977 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Hasuda, Y.

T. Matsuura, N. Yamada, S. Nishi, and Y. Hasuda, Macromolecules 26, 419 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hikita, M.

S. Tomaru, T. Watanabe, M. Hikita, M. Amano, Y. Shuto, I. Yokohama, T. Kaino, and N. Asobe, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1760 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kaino, T.

S. Tomaru, T. Watanabe, M. Hikita, M. Amano, Y. Shuto, I. Yokohama, T. Kaino, and N. Asobe, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1760 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kajzar, F.

G. Blau, E. Popov, F. Kajzar, A. Raimond, J. F. Roux, and J. L. Coutaz, Opt. Lett. 20, 1101 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Kajzar, G. Blau, and G. Vitrant, in Proceedings of the Polymer Optical Fiber Conference ’97 (POF’97) (Information Gatekeepers Group, Boston, Mass., 1997), p. 90.

Karim, D.

G. Khanarian, R. A. Norwood, D. Haas, B. Feuer, and D. Karim, Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 977 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Khanarian, G.

G. Khanarian, R. A. Norwood, D. Haas, B. Feuer, and D. Karim, Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 977 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Lalama, S. J.

K. D. Singer, J. E. Sohn, and S. J. Lalama, Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 248 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Laskowski, E. J.

J. A. Rogers, M. Meier, A. Dodabalapur, E. J. Laskowski, and M. A. Cappuzzo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3257 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lippert, T.

T. Lippert, T. Gerber, A. Wokaun, D. J. Funk, H. Fukumura, and M. Goto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1018 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lipscomb, G. F.

J. I. Thackara, G. F. Lipscomb, M. A. Stiller, A. J. Ticknor, and R. Lytel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1031 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Lytel, R.

J. I. Thackara, G. F. Lipscomb, M. A. Stiller, A. J. Ticknor, and R. Lytel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1031 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Matsuura, T.

T. Matsuura, N. Yamada, S. Nishi, and Y. Hasuda, Macromolecules 26, 419 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Meier, M.

J. A. Rogers, M. Meier, A. Dodabalapur, E. J. Laskowski, and M. A. Cappuzzo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3257 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nakanishi, M.

X. Ni, M. Nakanishi, O. Sugihara, and N. Okamoto, Opt. Rev. 5, 9 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nakayama, H.

H. Nakayama, O. Sugihara, and N. Okamoto, Opt. Lett. 22, 1541 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Ozawa, H. Nakayama, O. Sugihara, and N. Okamoto, Nonlinear Opt. 15, 171 (1996).

Ni, X.

X. Ni, M. Nakanishi, O. Sugihara, and N. Okamoto, Opt. Rev. 5, 9 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nijhuis, S.

G. L. J. A. Rikken, C. J. E. Seppen, and S. Nijhuis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 435 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Nishi, S.

T. Matsuura, N. Yamada, S. Nishi, and Y. Hasuda, Macromolecules 26, 419 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Norwood, R. A.

G. Khanarian, R. A. Norwood, D. Haas, B. Feuer, and D. Karim, Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 977 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Okamoto, N.

X. Ni, M. Nakanishi, O. Sugihara, and N. Okamoto, Opt. Rev. 5, 9 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Nakayama, O. Sugihara, and N. Okamoto, Opt. Lett. 22, 1541 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Ozawa, H. Nakayama, O. Sugihara, and N. Okamoto, Nonlinear Opt. 15, 171 (1996).

Ozawa, M.

M. Ozawa, H. Nakayama, O. Sugihara, and N. Okamoto, Nonlinear Opt. 15, 171 (1996).

Popov, E.

Raimond, A.

Rikken, G. L. J. A.

G. L. J. A. Rikken, C. J. E. Seppen, and S. Nijhuis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 435 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Rogers, J. A.

J. A. Rogers, M. Meier, A. Dodabalapur, E. J. Laskowski, and M. A. Cappuzzo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3257 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Roux, J. F.

Seppen, C. J. E.

G. L. J. A. Rikken, C. J. E. Seppen, and S. Nijhuis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 435 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Shuto, Y.

S. Tomaru, T. Watanabe, M. Hikita, M. Amano, Y. Shuto, I. Yokohama, T. Kaino, and N. Asobe, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1760 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Singer, K. D.

K. D. Singer, J. E. Sohn, and S. J. Lalama, Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 248 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Sohn, J. E.

K. D. Singer, J. E. Sohn, and S. J. Lalama, Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 248 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Stiller, M. A.

J. I. Thackara, G. F. Lipscomb, M. A. Stiller, A. J. Ticknor, and R. Lytel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1031 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Sugihara, O.

X. Ni, M. Nakanishi, O. Sugihara, and N. Okamoto, Opt. Rev. 5, 9 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Nakayama, O. Sugihara, and N. Okamoto, Opt. Lett. 22, 1541 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Ozawa, H. Nakayama, O. Sugihara, and N. Okamoto, Nonlinear Opt. 15, 171 (1996).

Thackara, J. I.

J. I. Thackara, G. F. Lipscomb, M. A. Stiller, A. J. Ticknor, and R. Lytel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1031 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Ticknor, A. J.

J. I. Thackara, G. F. Lipscomb, M. A. Stiller, A. J. Ticknor, and R. Lytel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1031 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Tomaru, S.

S. Tomaru, T. Watanabe, M. Hikita, M. Amano, Y. Shuto, I. Yokohama, T. Kaino, and N. Asobe, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1760 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Vitrant, G.

F. Kajzar, G. Blau, and G. Vitrant, in Proceedings of the Polymer Optical Fiber Conference ’97 (POF’97) (Information Gatekeepers Group, Boston, Mass., 1997), p. 90.

Watanabe, T.

S. Tomaru, T. Watanabe, M. Hikita, M. Amano, Y. Shuto, I. Yokohama, T. Kaino, and N. Asobe, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1760 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wokaun, A.

T. Lippert, T. Gerber, A. Wokaun, D. J. Funk, H. Fukumura, and M. Goto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1018 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, N.

T. Matsuura, N. Yamada, S. Nishi, and Y. Hasuda, Macromolecules 26, 419 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Yokohama, I.

S. Tomaru, T. Watanabe, M. Hikita, M. Amano, Y. Shuto, I. Yokohama, T. Kaino, and N. Asobe, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1760 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (7)

K. D. Singer, J. E. Sohn, and S. J. Lalama, Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 248 (1986).
[CrossRef]

G. Khanarian, R. A. Norwood, D. Haas, B. Feuer, and D. Karim, Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 977 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. I. Thackara, G. F. Lipscomb, M. A. Stiller, A. J. Ticknor, and R. Lytel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1031 (1988).
[CrossRef]

G. L. J. A. Rikken, C. J. E. Seppen, and S. Nijhuis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 435 (1991).
[CrossRef]

S. Tomaru, T. Watanabe, M. Hikita, M. Amano, Y. Shuto, I. Yokohama, T. Kaino, and N. Asobe, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1760 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Rogers, M. Meier, A. Dodabalapur, E. J. Laskowski, and M. A. Cappuzzo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3257 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. Lippert, T. Gerber, A. Wokaun, D. J. Funk, H. Fukumura, and M. Goto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1018 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Macromolecules (1)

T. Matsuura, N. Yamada, S. Nishi, and Y. Hasuda, Macromolecules 26, 419 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Nonlinear Opt. (1)

M. Ozawa, H. Nakayama, O. Sugihara, and N. Okamoto, Nonlinear Opt. 15, 171 (1996).

Opt. Lett. (2)

Opt. Rev. (1)

X. Ni, M. Nakanishi, O. Sugihara, and N. Okamoto, Opt. Rev. 5, 9 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

F. Kajzar, G. Blau, and G. Vitrant, in Proceedings of the Polymer Optical Fiber Conference ’97 (POF’97) (Information Gatekeepers Group, Boston, Mass., 1997), p. 90.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

AFM photograph of a polyimide die of the master grating with a 1µm period.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic diagram of simultaneous embossing and poling at Tg.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

AFM photograph of the replica grating in DR1–PMMA with the removal temperature set at 50 °C.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

AFM photograph of the replica grating in DR1–PMMA with the removal temperature set at room temperature (25 °C).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Photograph of first-order diffracted second-harmonic generation by insertion of the fundamental beam into the grating region.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Value of d33 in the vicinity of the grating region and the first-order diffraction efficiency of a grating in ten replica samples.

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