Abstract

Long-period gratings (LPG’s) written in commercially available boron-codoped fibers operating at wavelengths of <1.1 µm are shown to exhibit high temperature and bending sensitivities. Each resonant attenuation band of such LPG’s was observed to split in two when the LPG’s were bent. The split attenuation bands’ separation increased significantly with increasing bend curvature, and the central wavelengths of the split bands provided a measure of temperature. We exploit this effect to allow for simultaneous measurement of temperature and bending in smart-structure applications. The demonstrated novel sensor system is simple and low cost.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. G. Han, C. S. Kim, K. Oh, U. C. Paek, and Y. Chung, Proc. SPIE 3746, 58 (1999).

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[CrossRef]

E. J. Friebele, C. G. Askins, A. B. Bosse, A. D. Kersey, H. J. Patrick, W. R. Pogue, M. A. Putnam, W. R. Simon, F. A. Tasker, W. S. Vincent, and S. T. Vohra, Smart Mater. Struct. 8, 813 (1999).
[CrossRef]

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H. J. Patrick, C. C. Chang, and S. T. Vohra, Electron. Lett. 34, 1773 (1998).
[CrossRef]

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1996 (1)

Askins, C. G.

E. J. Friebele, C. G. Askins, A. B. Bosse, A. D. Kersey, H. J. Patrick, W. R. Pogue, M. A. Putnam, W. R. Simon, F. A. Tasker, W. S. Vincent, and S. T. Vohra, Smart Mater. Struct. 8, 813 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bhatia, V.

Bosse, A. B.

E. J. Friebele, C. G. Askins, A. B. Bosse, A. D. Kersey, H. J. Patrick, W. R. Pogue, M. A. Putnam, W. R. Simon, F. A. Tasker, W. S. Vincent, and S. T. Vohra, Smart Mater. Struct. 8, 813 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, D.

Chang, C. C.

H. J. Patrick, C. C. Chang, and S. T. Vohra, Electron. Lett. 34, 1773 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chung, Y.

Y. G. Han, C. S. Kim, K. Oh, U. C. Paek, and Y. Chung, Proc. SPIE 3746, 58 (1999).

Claus, R. O.

Erdogan, T.

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Friebele, E. J.

E. J. Friebele, C. G. Askins, A. B. Bosse, A. D. Kersey, H. J. Patrick, W. R. Pogue, M. A. Putnam, W. R. Simon, F. A. Tasker, W. S. Vincent, and S. T. Vohra, Smart Mater. Struct. 8, 813 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Han, Y. G.

Y. G. Han, C. S. Kim, K. Oh, U. C. Paek, and Y. Chung, Proc. SPIE 3746, 58 (1999).

Huang, D.

X. Shu, X. Zhu, Q. Wang, S. Jiang, W. Shi, Z. Huang, and D. Huang, Electron. Lett. 35, 649 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Z.

X. Shu, X. Zhu, Q. Wang, S. Jiang, W. Shi, Z. Huang, and D. Huang, Electron. Lett. 35, 649 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, S.

X. Shu, X. Zhu, Q. Wang, S. Jiang, W. Shi, Z. Huang, and D. Huang, Electron. Lett. 35, 649 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Judkins, J. B.

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kersey, A. D.

E. J. Friebele, C. G. Askins, A. B. Bosse, A. D. Kersey, H. J. Patrick, W. R. Pogue, M. A. Putnam, W. R. Simon, F. A. Tasker, W. S. Vincent, and S. T. Vohra, Smart Mater. Struct. 8, 813 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kim, C. S.

Y. G. Han, C. S. Kim, K. Oh, U. C. Paek, and Y. Chung, Proc. SPIE 3746, 58 (1999).

Lemaire, P. J.

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Oh, K.

Y. G. Han, C. S. Kim, K. Oh, U. C. Paek, and Y. Chung, Proc. SPIE 3746, 58 (1999).

Paek, U. C.

Y. G. Han, C. S. Kim, K. Oh, U. C. Paek, and Y. Chung, Proc. SPIE 3746, 58 (1999).

Patrick, H. J.

E. J. Friebele, C. G. Askins, A. B. Bosse, A. D. Kersey, H. J. Patrick, W. R. Pogue, M. A. Putnam, W. R. Simon, F. A. Tasker, W. S. Vincent, and S. T. Vohra, Smart Mater. Struct. 8, 813 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Patrick, C. C. Chang, and S. T. Vohra, Electron. Lett. 34, 1773 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pogue, W. R.

E. J. Friebele, C. G. Askins, A. B. Bosse, A. D. Kersey, H. J. Patrick, W. R. Pogue, M. A. Putnam, W. R. Simon, F. A. Tasker, W. S. Vincent, and S. T. Vohra, Smart Mater. Struct. 8, 813 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Putnam, M. A.

E. J. Friebele, C. G. Askins, A. B. Bosse, A. D. Kersey, H. J. Patrick, W. R. Pogue, M. A. Putnam, W. R. Simon, F. A. Tasker, W. S. Vincent, and S. T. Vohra, Smart Mater. Struct. 8, 813 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Shi, W.

X. Shu, X. Zhu, Q. Wang, S. Jiang, W. Shi, Z. Huang, and D. Huang, Electron. Lett. 35, 649 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Shu, X.

X. Shu, X. Zhu, Q. Wang, S. Jiang, W. Shi, Z. Huang, and D. Huang, Electron. Lett. 35, 649 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Simon, W. R.

E. J. Friebele, C. G. Askins, A. B. Bosse, A. D. Kersey, H. J. Patrick, W. R. Pogue, M. A. Putnam, W. R. Simon, F. A. Tasker, W. S. Vincent, and S. T. Vohra, Smart Mater. Struct. 8, 813 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sipe, J. E.

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tasker, F. A.

E. J. Friebele, C. G. Askins, A. B. Bosse, A. D. Kersey, H. J. Patrick, W. R. Pogue, M. A. Putnam, W. R. Simon, F. A. Tasker, W. S. Vincent, and S. T. Vohra, Smart Mater. Struct. 8, 813 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Vengsarkar, A. M.

Vincent, W. S.

E. J. Friebele, C. G. Askins, A. B. Bosse, A. D. Kersey, H. J. Patrick, W. R. Pogue, M. A. Putnam, W. R. Simon, F. A. Tasker, W. S. Vincent, and S. T. Vohra, Smart Mater. Struct. 8, 813 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Vohra, S. T.

E. J. Friebele, C. G. Askins, A. B. Bosse, A. D. Kersey, H. J. Patrick, W. R. Pogue, M. A. Putnam, W. R. Simon, F. A. Tasker, W. S. Vincent, and S. T. Vohra, Smart Mater. Struct. 8, 813 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Patrick, C. C. Chang, and S. T. Vohra, Electron. Lett. 34, 1773 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Q.

X. Shu, X. Zhu, Q. Wang, S. Jiang, W. Shi, Z. Huang, and D. Huang, Electron. Lett. 35, 649 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, X.

X. Shu, X. Zhu, Q. Wang, S. Jiang, W. Shi, Z. Huang, and D. Huang, Electron. Lett. 35, 649 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (2)

H. J. Patrick, C. C. Chang, and S. T. Vohra, Electron. Lett. 34, 1773 (1998).
[CrossRef]

X. Shu, X. Zhu, Q. Wang, S. Jiang, W. Shi, Z. Huang, and D. Huang, Electron. Lett. 35, 649 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Proc. SPIE (1)

Y. G. Han, C. S. Kim, K. Oh, U. C. Paek, and Y. Chung, Proc. SPIE 3746, 58 (1999).

Smart Mater. Struct. (1)

E. J. Friebele, C. G. Askins, A. B. Bosse, A. D. Kersey, H. J. Patrick, W. R. Pogue, M. A. Putnam, W. R. Simon, F. A. Tasker, W. S. Vincent, and S. T. Vohra, Smart Mater. Struct. 8, 813 (1999).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Transmission spectra of LPG D for T=30 °C and different bend curvatures: (———) straight, () 0.75m-1 curvature, (·········) 1.31m-1 curvature.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Central-wavelength separation of the split attenuation bands versus bend curvature for LPG D. T=30 °C.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Central wavelengths of the attenuation bands versus temperature when LPG C was straight and when it was bent with a curvature of 0.92 m-1 in different bending directions: () straight, () bent, θ=0°, (ol-25-14-1007-i001) bent, θ=180°.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Central-wavelength shift versus axial strain for LPG D. The strain sensitivities for the four bands are -1.0×10-4 nm/µ (, attenuation band II), -1.9×10-4 nm/µ (ol-25-14-1007-i002, 962-nm band), 1.5×10-4 nm/µ (ol-25-14-1007-i003, 925-nm band), and -3×10-6 nm/µ (, 861-nm band).

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Tested LPG’s

Equations (1)

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Δλ1Δλ2=KTKB1KTKB2ΔTΔB,

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