Abstract

We demonstrate a dynamic all-optical image-intensity-inversion technique that uses self- and mutual-phase-modulation effects with a highly nonlinear nematic liquid-crystal film placed in an intermediate focal plane. This process requires submilliwatt optical power, responds in a few milliseconds, and can be realized over a very broad spectral range.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. See, for example, J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1996).
  2. See, for example, P. Gunter and J. P. Huignard, eds., Photorefractive Materials and Their Applications (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1989), Vols. 1 and 2.
  3. R. H. Arsenault, V. M. Ristic, A. Yi, P. Chevrette, and R. D. Reeves, Proc. SPIE 661, 383 (1986); see also R. H. Arsenault, V. M. Ristic, and P. Chevrette, J. Mod. Opt. 34, 1393 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  4. T. H. Barnes, T. Eiju, K. Matsuda, and N. Ooyama, Appl. Opt. 28, 4845 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. H. Rehn and R. Kowarschik, Opt. Laser Technol. 30, 39 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  6. K. Sayyah and U. Efron, Opt. Lett. 21, 1384 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. M. T. Gruneisen and J. M. Wilkes, in Spatial Light Modulators, G. Burdge and S. Esener, eds., Vol. 14 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), p. 220.
  8. M. A. Kramer, C. J. Wetterer, and T. Martinez, Appl. Opt. 30, 3319 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. W. T. Rhodes, Proc. IEEE 69, 65 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  10. I. C. Khoo, Liquid Crystals: Physical Properties and Nonlinear Optical Phenomena (Wiley Interscience, New York, 1994).
  11. I. C. Khoo and S. T. Wu, Optics and Nonlinear Optics of Liquid Crystals (World Scientific, Singapore, 1993).
    [CrossRef]
  12. I. C. Khoo, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 525 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  13. I. C. Khoo, S. Slussarenko, B. D. Guenther, M. Y. Shih, P. H. Chen, and M. V. Wood, Opt. Lett. 23, 253 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  14. I. C. Khoo, M. V. Wood, M. Y. Shih, and P. H. Chen, Opt. Expr. 14, 431 (1999), http://epubs.osa.org/opticsexpress .
  15. F. Simoni, O. Francescangeli, Y. Resnikov, and S. Slussarenko, Opt. Lett. 22, 549 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. S. Slussarenko, O. Francescangeli, F. Simoni, and Y. Resnikov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3613 (1997).
    [CrossRef]

1999 (1)

I. C. Khoo, M. V. Wood, M. Y. Shih, and P. H. Chen, Opt. Expr. 14, 431 (1999), http://epubs.osa.org/opticsexpress .

1998 (2)

H. Rehn and R. Kowarschik, Opt. Laser Technol. 30, 39 (1998).
[CrossRef]

I. C. Khoo, S. Slussarenko, B. D. Guenther, M. Y. Shih, P. H. Chen, and M. V. Wood, Opt. Lett. 23, 253 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

F. Simoni, O. Francescangeli, Y. Resnikov, and S. Slussarenko, Opt. Lett. 22, 549 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Slussarenko, O. Francescangeli, F. Simoni, and Y. Resnikov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3613 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

I. C. Khoo, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 525 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. Sayyah and U. Efron, Opt. Lett. 21, 1384 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

M. A. Kramer, C. J. Wetterer, and T. Martinez, Appl. Opt. 30, 3319 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

T. H. Barnes, T. Eiju, K. Matsuda, and N. Ooyama, Appl. Opt. 28, 4845 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986 (1)

R. H. Arsenault, V. M. Ristic, A. Yi, P. Chevrette, and R. D. Reeves, Proc. SPIE 661, 383 (1986); see also R. H. Arsenault, V. M. Ristic, and P. Chevrette, J. Mod. Opt. 34, 1393 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

W. T. Rhodes, Proc. IEEE 69, 65 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Arsenault, R. H.

R. H. Arsenault, V. M. Ristic, A. Yi, P. Chevrette, and R. D. Reeves, Proc. SPIE 661, 383 (1986); see also R. H. Arsenault, V. M. Ristic, and P. Chevrette, J. Mod. Opt. 34, 1393 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, T. H.

T. H. Barnes, T. Eiju, K. Matsuda, and N. Ooyama, Appl. Opt. 28, 4845 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, P. H.

I. C. Khoo, M. V. Wood, M. Y. Shih, and P. H. Chen, Opt. Expr. 14, 431 (1999), http://epubs.osa.org/opticsexpress .

I. C. Khoo, S. Slussarenko, B. D. Guenther, M. Y. Shih, P. H. Chen, and M. V. Wood, Opt. Lett. 23, 253 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chevrette, P.

R. H. Arsenault, V. M. Ristic, A. Yi, P. Chevrette, and R. D. Reeves, Proc. SPIE 661, 383 (1986); see also R. H. Arsenault, V. M. Ristic, and P. Chevrette, J. Mod. Opt. 34, 1393 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Efron, U.

K. Sayyah and U. Efron, Opt. Lett. 21, 1384 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eiju, T.

T. H. Barnes, T. Eiju, K. Matsuda, and N. Ooyama, Appl. Opt. 28, 4845 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Francescangeli, O.

F. Simoni, O. Francescangeli, Y. Resnikov, and S. Slussarenko, Opt. Lett. 22, 549 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Slussarenko, O. Francescangeli, F. Simoni, and Y. Resnikov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3613 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Goodman, J. W.

See, for example, J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1996).

Gruneisen, M. T.

M. T. Gruneisen and J. M. Wilkes, in Spatial Light Modulators, G. Burdge and S. Esener, eds., Vol. 14 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), p. 220.

Guenther, B. D.

I. C. Khoo, S. Slussarenko, B. D. Guenther, M. Y. Shih, P. H. Chen, and M. V. Wood, Opt. Lett. 23, 253 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Khoo, I. C.

I. C. Khoo, M. V. Wood, M. Y. Shih, and P. H. Chen, Opt. Expr. 14, 431 (1999), http://epubs.osa.org/opticsexpress .

I. C. Khoo, S. Slussarenko, B. D. Guenther, M. Y. Shih, P. H. Chen, and M. V. Wood, Opt. Lett. 23, 253 (1998).
[CrossRef]

I. C. Khoo, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 525 (1996).
[CrossRef]

I. C. Khoo, Liquid Crystals: Physical Properties and Nonlinear Optical Phenomena (Wiley Interscience, New York, 1994).

I. C. Khoo and S. T. Wu, Optics and Nonlinear Optics of Liquid Crystals (World Scientific, Singapore, 1993).
[CrossRef]

Kowarschik, R.

H. Rehn and R. Kowarschik, Opt. Laser Technol. 30, 39 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kramer, M. A.

M. A. Kramer, C. J. Wetterer, and T. Martinez, Appl. Opt. 30, 3319 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martinez, T.

M. A. Kramer, C. J. Wetterer, and T. Martinez, Appl. Opt. 30, 3319 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Matsuda, K.

T. H. Barnes, T. Eiju, K. Matsuda, and N. Ooyama, Appl. Opt. 28, 4845 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ooyama, N.

T. H. Barnes, T. Eiju, K. Matsuda, and N. Ooyama, Appl. Opt. 28, 4845 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reeves, R. D.

R. H. Arsenault, V. M. Ristic, A. Yi, P. Chevrette, and R. D. Reeves, Proc. SPIE 661, 383 (1986); see also R. H. Arsenault, V. M. Ristic, and P. Chevrette, J. Mod. Opt. 34, 1393 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Rehn, H.

H. Rehn and R. Kowarschik, Opt. Laser Technol. 30, 39 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Resnikov, Y.

F. Simoni, O. Francescangeli, Y. Resnikov, and S. Slussarenko, Opt. Lett. 22, 549 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Slussarenko, O. Francescangeli, F. Simoni, and Y. Resnikov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3613 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rhodes, W. T.

W. T. Rhodes, Proc. IEEE 69, 65 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Ristic, V. M.

R. H. Arsenault, V. M. Ristic, A. Yi, P. Chevrette, and R. D. Reeves, Proc. SPIE 661, 383 (1986); see also R. H. Arsenault, V. M. Ristic, and P. Chevrette, J. Mod. Opt. 34, 1393 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Sayyah, K.

K. Sayyah and U. Efron, Opt. Lett. 21, 1384 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shih, M. Y.

I. C. Khoo, M. V. Wood, M. Y. Shih, and P. H. Chen, Opt. Expr. 14, 431 (1999), http://epubs.osa.org/opticsexpress .

I. C. Khoo, S. Slussarenko, B. D. Guenther, M. Y. Shih, P. H. Chen, and M. V. Wood, Opt. Lett. 23, 253 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Simoni, F.

S. Slussarenko, O. Francescangeli, F. Simoni, and Y. Resnikov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3613 (1997).
[CrossRef]

F. Simoni, O. Francescangeli, Y. Resnikov, and S. Slussarenko, Opt. Lett. 22, 549 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Slussarenko, S.

I. C. Khoo, S. Slussarenko, B. D. Guenther, M. Y. Shih, P. H. Chen, and M. V. Wood, Opt. Lett. 23, 253 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. Simoni, O. Francescangeli, Y. Resnikov, and S. Slussarenko, Opt. Lett. 22, 549 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Slussarenko, O. Francescangeli, F. Simoni, and Y. Resnikov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3613 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wetterer, C. J.

M. A. Kramer, C. J. Wetterer, and T. Martinez, Appl. Opt. 30, 3319 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilkes, J. M.

M. T. Gruneisen and J. M. Wilkes, in Spatial Light Modulators, G. Burdge and S. Esener, eds., Vol. 14 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), p. 220.

Wood, M. V.

I. C. Khoo, M. V. Wood, M. Y. Shih, and P. H. Chen, Opt. Expr. 14, 431 (1999), http://epubs.osa.org/opticsexpress .

I. C. Khoo, S. Slussarenko, B. D. Guenther, M. Y. Shih, P. H. Chen, and M. V. Wood, Opt. Lett. 23, 253 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wu, S. T.

I. C. Khoo and S. T. Wu, Optics and Nonlinear Optics of Liquid Crystals (World Scientific, Singapore, 1993).
[CrossRef]

Yi, A.

R. H. Arsenault, V. M. Ristic, A. Yi, P. Chevrette, and R. D. Reeves, Proc. SPIE 661, 383 (1986); see also R. H. Arsenault, V. M. Ristic, and P. Chevrette, J. Mod. Opt. 34, 1393 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

T. H. Barnes, T. Eiju, K. Matsuda, and N. Ooyama, Appl. Opt. 28, 4845 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Kramer, C. J. Wetterer, and T. Martinez, Appl. Opt. 30, 3319 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

S. Slussarenko, O. Francescangeli, F. Simoni, and Y. Resnikov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3613 (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

I. C. Khoo, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 525 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Expr. (1)

I. C. Khoo, M. V. Wood, M. Y. Shih, and P. H. Chen, Opt. Expr. 14, 431 (1999), http://epubs.osa.org/opticsexpress .

Opt. Laser Technol. (1)

H. Rehn and R. Kowarschik, Opt. Laser Technol. 30, 39 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (3)

K. Sayyah and U. Efron, Opt. Lett. 21, 1384 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Simoni, O. Francescangeli, Y. Resnikov, and S. Slussarenko, Opt. Lett. 22, 549 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. C. Khoo, S. Slussarenko, B. D. Guenther, M. Y. Shih, P. H. Chen, and M. V. Wood, Opt. Lett. 23, 253 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Proc. IEEE (1)

W. T. Rhodes, Proc. IEEE 69, 65 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

R. H. Arsenault, V. M. Ristic, A. Yi, P. Chevrette, and R. D. Reeves, Proc. SPIE 661, 383 (1986); see also R. H. Arsenault, V. M. Ristic, and P. Chevrette, J. Mod. Opt. 34, 1393 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

See, for example, J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1996).

See, for example, P. Gunter and J. P. Huignard, eds., Photorefractive Materials and Their Applications (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1989), Vols. 1 and 2.

I. C. Khoo, Liquid Crystals: Physical Properties and Nonlinear Optical Phenomena (Wiley Interscience, New York, 1994).

I. C. Khoo and S. T. Wu, Optics and Nonlinear Optics of Liquid Crystals (World Scientific, Singapore, 1993).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Gruneisen and J. M. Wilkes, in Spatial Light Modulators, G. Burdge and S. Esener, eds., Vol. 14 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), p. 220.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Setup for self-phase modulation.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Image inversion during illumination from an Ar+ laser at λ=488 nm: (a) input image; (b) Ar+ laser, <0.3mW power; (c) Ar+ laser, 0.78mW power at some intermediate intensity; (d) Ar+ laser, 1.2 mW.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Image inversion during illumination by a He–Ne laser at λ=543.5 nm: (a) input image, (b) low optical power, (c) intermediate optical intensity, (d) above the intensity level for image inversion.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Comparison of experimentally observed images and numerical simulation results.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Setup for control-beam phase-modulation operation.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Output at low control-beam powers 1 mW. (b) Inverted output image at a control-beam power of 2.5 mW. (c) Response time of image inversion by a control beam, as measured by monitoring of the intensity of a dark–bright region (e.g., the number 4.0 or a bar).

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Fα=12π-fxexp2πiαxdx.
Gα=FαexpiΦ,
Φ=2πLλn2Iα=2πLλn2Fα2,
fx=12π-Gαexp-2πiαxdα.
Φ=2πLλn2Iαn2Fα2.
fx2=14π2--fxexp2πiαxdx×expin2-fxexp2πiαxdx2×exp-2πiαxdα2.

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