Abstract

Improvements in the power level of sources near 1550 nm and in the efficiency of waveguide frequency doublers enabled us to lock a frequency-doubled source directly to the 5S1/25D5/2 two-photon transitions near 778 nm. We obtained a sufficiently powerful second-harmonic signal, exceeding 2 mW, by doubling an external-cavity diode laser that was amplified by an erbium-doped fiber amplifier in a periodically poled LiNbO3 channel waveguide. Our experimental scheme can be used for realizing compact, high-performance frequency standards near 1550 nm for fiber-optic communication and sensing applications.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. See, for example, M. Ohtsu, Frequency Control of Semiconductor Lasers (Wiley, New York, 1996).
  2. A. Arie, B. Lissak, and M. Tur, J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 1849 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  3. O. Ishida and H. Toba, J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 1344 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. de Labacheleire, K. Nakagawa, and M. Ohtsu, Opt. Lett. 19, 840 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  5. V. Mahal, A. Arie, M. A. Arbore, and M. M. Fejer, Opt. Lett. 21, 1217 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. A. Bruner, A. Arie, M. A. Arbore, and M. M. Fejer, Appl. Opt. 37, 1049 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  7. W. Wang, A. M. Akulshin, and M. Ohtsu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 95 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  8. D. Touahri, O. Acef, A. Clairon, J. J. Zondy, R. Felder, L. Hilico, B. de Beauvoir, F. Biraben, and F. Nez, Opt. Commun. 133, 471 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. Lindgard and S. E. Nielsen, At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 19, 606 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. Zhu and R. W. Standridge, Opt. Lett. 22, 730 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. M. Poulin, C. Latrasse, N. Cyr, and M. Têtu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1631 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. A. Arbore and M. M. Fejer, Opt. Lett. 22, 151 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. S. Taccheo, P. Laporta, S. Longhi, O. Svelto, and C. Svelto, Appl. Phys. B 63, 425 (1996).
    [CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1998 (1)

1997 (4)

D. Touahri, O. Acef, A. Clairon, J. J. Zondy, R. Felder, L. Hilico, B. de Beauvoir, F. Biraben, and F. Nez, Opt. Commun. 133, 471 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Poulin, C. Latrasse, N. Cyr, and M. Têtu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1631 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Arbore and M. M. Fejer, Opt. Lett. 22, 151 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Zhu and R. W. Standridge, Opt. Lett. 22, 730 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (2)

S. Taccheo, P. Laporta, S. Longhi, O. Svelto, and C. Svelto, Appl. Phys. B 63, 425 (1996).
[CrossRef]

V. Mahal, A. Arie, M. A. Arbore, and M. M. Fejer, Opt. Lett. 21, 1217 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (2)

M. de Labacheleire, K. Nakagawa, and M. Ohtsu, Opt. Lett. 19, 840 (1994).
[CrossRef]

W. Wang, A. M. Akulshin, and M. Ohtsu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 95 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

O. Ishida and H. Toba, J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 1344 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

A. Lindgard and S. E. Nielsen, At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 19, 606 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Acef, O.

D. Touahri, O. Acef, A. Clairon, J. J. Zondy, R. Felder, L. Hilico, B. de Beauvoir, F. Biraben, and F. Nez, Opt. Commun. 133, 471 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Akulshin, A. M.

W. Wang, A. M. Akulshin, and M. Ohtsu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 95 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Arbore, M. A.

Arie, A.

Biraben, F.

D. Touahri, O. Acef, A. Clairon, J. J. Zondy, R. Felder, L. Hilico, B. de Beauvoir, F. Biraben, and F. Nez, Opt. Commun. 133, 471 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bruner, A.

Clairon, A.

D. Touahri, O. Acef, A. Clairon, J. J. Zondy, R. Felder, L. Hilico, B. de Beauvoir, F. Biraben, and F. Nez, Opt. Commun. 133, 471 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Cyr, N.

M. Poulin, C. Latrasse, N. Cyr, and M. Têtu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1631 (1997).
[CrossRef]

de Beauvoir, B.

D. Touahri, O. Acef, A. Clairon, J. J. Zondy, R. Felder, L. Hilico, B. de Beauvoir, F. Biraben, and F. Nez, Opt. Commun. 133, 471 (1997).
[CrossRef]

de Labacheleire, M.

Fejer, M. M.

Felder, R.

D. Touahri, O. Acef, A. Clairon, J. J. Zondy, R. Felder, L. Hilico, B. de Beauvoir, F. Biraben, and F. Nez, Opt. Commun. 133, 471 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hilico, L.

D. Touahri, O. Acef, A. Clairon, J. J. Zondy, R. Felder, L. Hilico, B. de Beauvoir, F. Biraben, and F. Nez, Opt. Commun. 133, 471 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ishida, O.

O. Ishida and H. Toba, J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 1344 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Laporta, P.

S. Taccheo, P. Laporta, S. Longhi, O. Svelto, and C. Svelto, Appl. Phys. B 63, 425 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Latrasse, C.

M. Poulin, C. Latrasse, N. Cyr, and M. Têtu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1631 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lindgard, A.

A. Lindgard and S. E. Nielsen, At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 19, 606 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Lissak, B.

Longhi, S.

S. Taccheo, P. Laporta, S. Longhi, O. Svelto, and C. Svelto, Appl. Phys. B 63, 425 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mahal, V.

Nakagawa, K.

Nez, F.

D. Touahri, O. Acef, A. Clairon, J. J. Zondy, R. Felder, L. Hilico, B. de Beauvoir, F. Biraben, and F. Nez, Opt. Commun. 133, 471 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nielsen, S. E.

A. Lindgard and S. E. Nielsen, At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 19, 606 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Ohtsu, M.

M. de Labacheleire, K. Nakagawa, and M. Ohtsu, Opt. Lett. 19, 840 (1994).
[CrossRef]

W. Wang, A. M. Akulshin, and M. Ohtsu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 95 (1994).
[CrossRef]

See, for example, M. Ohtsu, Frequency Control of Semiconductor Lasers (Wiley, New York, 1996).

Poulin, M.

M. Poulin, C. Latrasse, N. Cyr, and M. Têtu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1631 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Standridge, R. W.

Svelto, C.

S. Taccheo, P. Laporta, S. Longhi, O. Svelto, and C. Svelto, Appl. Phys. B 63, 425 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Svelto, O.

S. Taccheo, P. Laporta, S. Longhi, O. Svelto, and C. Svelto, Appl. Phys. B 63, 425 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Taccheo, S.

S. Taccheo, P. Laporta, S. Longhi, O. Svelto, and C. Svelto, Appl. Phys. B 63, 425 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Têtu, M.

M. Poulin, C. Latrasse, N. Cyr, and M. Têtu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1631 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Toba, H.

O. Ishida and H. Toba, J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 1344 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Touahri, D.

D. Touahri, O. Acef, A. Clairon, J. J. Zondy, R. Felder, L. Hilico, B. de Beauvoir, F. Biraben, and F. Nez, Opt. Commun. 133, 471 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tur, M.

Wang, W.

W. Wang, A. M. Akulshin, and M. Ohtsu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 95 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, M.

Zondy, J. J.

D. Touahri, O. Acef, A. Clairon, J. J. Zondy, R. Felder, L. Hilico, B. de Beauvoir, F. Biraben, and F. Nez, Opt. Commun. 133, 471 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

S. Taccheo, P. Laporta, S. Longhi, O. Svelto, and C. Svelto, Appl. Phys. B 63, 425 (1996).
[CrossRef]

At. Data Nucl. Data Tables (1)

A. Lindgard and S. E. Nielsen, At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 19, 606 (1977).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

M. Poulin, C. Latrasse, N. Cyr, and M. Têtu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1631 (1997).
[CrossRef]

W. Wang, A. M. Akulshin, and M. Ohtsu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 95 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

O. Ishida and H. Toba, J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 1344 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. Arie, B. Lissak, and M. Tur, J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 1849 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

D. Touahri, O. Acef, A. Clairon, J. J. Zondy, R. Felder, L. Hilico, B. de Beauvoir, F. Biraben, and F. Nez, Opt. Commun. 133, 471 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (4)

Other (1)

See, for example, M. Ohtsu, Frequency Control of Semiconductor Lasers (Wiley, New York, 1996).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup for locking the laser to Rb two-photon transition: EDFA, erbium-doped fiber amplifier; PMT, photomultiplier tube.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Second-harmonic power as a function of fundamental wavelength. Inset, second-harmonic power as a function of the square of the input pump power. Solid curve, theoretical fit.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Fluorescence signal and (b) derivative signal of Rb87 transitions near 778 nm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Square root of Allan variance as a function of measurement time. Inset, time trace of the error signal while the laser is locked.

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