Abstract

We present a near-field optical technique for second-harmonic imaging by use of tapered optical fiber tips externally illuminated with femtosecond laser pulses. Enhancement of the electric field at the tip of the fiber results in enhanced second-harmonic (SH) generation from the sample region near the tip. This SH emission is collected by the same tapered fiber. The spatial distribution and polarization properties of SH generation from thin ferroelectric films and a poled single crystal of BaTiO3 have been studied. A spatial resolution of the order of 80 nm was achieved. Symmetry properties of the near-field SH signal allow us to recover the local poling direction of individual ferroelectric domains in the film. Thus the technique provides a novel tool for nanometer-scale crystal analysis of polycrystalline samples.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. F. McGilp, Prog. Surf. Sci. 49, 1 (1995).
  2. V. Kirilyuk, A. Kirilyuk, and Th. Rasing, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2306 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  3. C. Ohlhoff, G. Lupke, C. Meyer, and H. Kurz, Phys. Rev. B 55, 4596 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  4. O. Auciello, J. F. Scott, and R. Ramesh, Phys. Today 51(7), 22 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  5. I. I. Smolyaninov, A. V. Zayats, and C. C. Davis, Phys. Rev. B 56, 9290 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. I. Bozhevolnyi, B. Vohnsen, and K. Pedersen, Opt. Commun. 150, 49 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  7. D. Jakubczyk, Y. Shen, M. Lal, C. Friend, K. S. Kim, J. Swiatkiewicz, and P. N. Prasad, Opt. Lett. 24, 1151 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  8. E. Betzig and J. K. Trautman, Science 257, 189 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. F. Zenhausern, M. P. O’Boyle, and H. K. Wichramasinghe, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1623 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  10. L. D. Rotter, D. L. Kaiser, and M. D. Vaudin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 310 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  11. I. I. Smolyaninov, C. H. Lee, and C. C. Davis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2429 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. Tyunina, J. Wittborn, K. V. Rao, J. Levoska, S. Leppavuori, and A. Sternberg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3191 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  13. L. Novotny, D. W. Pohl, and B. Hecht, Ultramicroscopy 61, 1 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. I. Gersten and A. Nitzan, J. Chem. Phys. 73, 3023 (1980).
  15. Y. Kawata, C. Xu, and W. Denk, J. Appl. Phys. 85, 1294 (1999).
    [CrossRef]

1999 (4)

D. Jakubczyk, Y. Shen, M. Lal, C. Friend, K. S. Kim, J. Swiatkiewicz, and P. N. Prasad, Opt. Lett. 24, 1151 (1999).
[CrossRef]

I. I. Smolyaninov, C. H. Lee, and C. C. Davis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2429 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Tyunina, J. Wittborn, K. V. Rao, J. Levoska, S. Leppavuori, and A. Sternberg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3191 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kawata, C. Xu, and W. Denk, J. Appl. Phys. 85, 1294 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, B. Vohnsen, and K. Pedersen, Opt. Commun. 150, 49 (1998).
[CrossRef]

O. Auciello, J. F. Scott, and R. Ramesh, Phys. Today 51(7), 22 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (3)

I. I. Smolyaninov, A. V. Zayats, and C. C. Davis, Phys. Rev. B 56, 9290 (1997).
[CrossRef]

V. Kirilyuk, A. Kirilyuk, and Th. Rasing, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2306 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. Ohlhoff, G. Lupke, C. Meyer, and H. Kurz, Phys. Rev. B 55, 4596 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

L. D. Rotter, D. L. Kaiser, and M. D. Vaudin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 310 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

L. Novotny, D. W. Pohl, and B. Hecht, Ultramicroscopy 61, 1 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. F. McGilp, Prog. Surf. Sci. 49, 1 (1995).

1994 (1)

F. Zenhausern, M. P. O’Boyle, and H. K. Wichramasinghe, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1623 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

E. Betzig and J. K. Trautman, Science 257, 189 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1980 (1)

J. I. Gersten and A. Nitzan, J. Chem. Phys. 73, 3023 (1980).

Auciello, O.

O. Auciello, J. F. Scott, and R. Ramesh, Phys. Today 51(7), 22 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Betzig, E.

E. Betzig and J. K. Trautman, Science 257, 189 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, B. Vohnsen, and K. Pedersen, Opt. Commun. 150, 49 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Davis, C. C.

I. I. Smolyaninov, C. H. Lee, and C. C. Davis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2429 (1999).
[CrossRef]

I. I. Smolyaninov, A. V. Zayats, and C. C. Davis, Phys. Rev. B 56, 9290 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Denk, W.

Y. Kawata, C. Xu, and W. Denk, J. Appl. Phys. 85, 1294 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Friend, C.

Gersten, J. I.

J. I. Gersten and A. Nitzan, J. Chem. Phys. 73, 3023 (1980).

Hecht, B.

L. Novotny, D. W. Pohl, and B. Hecht, Ultramicroscopy 61, 1 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Jakubczyk, D.

Kaiser, D. L.

L. D. Rotter, D. L. Kaiser, and M. D. Vaudin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 310 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kawata, Y.

Y. Kawata, C. Xu, and W. Denk, J. Appl. Phys. 85, 1294 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K. S.

Kirilyuk, A.

V. Kirilyuk, A. Kirilyuk, and Th. Rasing, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2306 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kirilyuk, V.

V. Kirilyuk, A. Kirilyuk, and Th. Rasing, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2306 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kurz, H.

C. Ohlhoff, G. Lupke, C. Meyer, and H. Kurz, Phys. Rev. B 55, 4596 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lal, M.

Lee, C. H.

I. I. Smolyaninov, C. H. Lee, and C. C. Davis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2429 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Leppavuori, S.

M. Tyunina, J. Wittborn, K. V. Rao, J. Levoska, S. Leppavuori, and A. Sternberg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3191 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Levoska, J.

M. Tyunina, J. Wittborn, K. V. Rao, J. Levoska, S. Leppavuori, and A. Sternberg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3191 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lupke, G.

C. Ohlhoff, G. Lupke, C. Meyer, and H. Kurz, Phys. Rev. B 55, 4596 (1997).
[CrossRef]

McGilp, J. F.

J. F. McGilp, Prog. Surf. Sci. 49, 1 (1995).

Meyer, C.

C. Ohlhoff, G. Lupke, C. Meyer, and H. Kurz, Phys. Rev. B 55, 4596 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nitzan, A.

J. I. Gersten and A. Nitzan, J. Chem. Phys. 73, 3023 (1980).

Novotny, L.

L. Novotny, D. W. Pohl, and B. Hecht, Ultramicroscopy 61, 1 (1995).
[CrossRef]

O’Boyle, M. P.

F. Zenhausern, M. P. O’Boyle, and H. K. Wichramasinghe, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1623 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ohlhoff, C.

C. Ohlhoff, G. Lupke, C. Meyer, and H. Kurz, Phys. Rev. B 55, 4596 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Pedersen, K.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, B. Vohnsen, and K. Pedersen, Opt. Commun. 150, 49 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pohl, D. W.

L. Novotny, D. W. Pohl, and B. Hecht, Ultramicroscopy 61, 1 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Prasad, P. N.

Ramesh, R.

O. Auciello, J. F. Scott, and R. Ramesh, Phys. Today 51(7), 22 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rao, K. V.

M. Tyunina, J. Wittborn, K. V. Rao, J. Levoska, S. Leppavuori, and A. Sternberg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3191 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rasing, Th.

V. Kirilyuk, A. Kirilyuk, and Th. Rasing, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2306 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rotter, L. D.

L. D. Rotter, D. L. Kaiser, and M. D. Vaudin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 310 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Scott, J. F.

O. Auciello, J. F. Scott, and R. Ramesh, Phys. Today 51(7), 22 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Shen, Y.

Smolyaninov, I. I.

I. I. Smolyaninov, C. H. Lee, and C. C. Davis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2429 (1999).
[CrossRef]

I. I. Smolyaninov, A. V. Zayats, and C. C. Davis, Phys. Rev. B 56, 9290 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sternberg, A.

M. Tyunina, J. Wittborn, K. V. Rao, J. Levoska, S. Leppavuori, and A. Sternberg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3191 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Swiatkiewicz, J.

Trautman, J. K.

E. Betzig and J. K. Trautman, Science 257, 189 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tyunina, M.

M. Tyunina, J. Wittborn, K. V. Rao, J. Levoska, S. Leppavuori, and A. Sternberg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3191 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Vaudin, M. D.

L. D. Rotter, D. L. Kaiser, and M. D. Vaudin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 310 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Vohnsen, B.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, B. Vohnsen, and K. Pedersen, Opt. Commun. 150, 49 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wichramasinghe, H. K.

F. Zenhausern, M. P. O’Boyle, and H. K. Wichramasinghe, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1623 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wittborn, J.

M. Tyunina, J. Wittborn, K. V. Rao, J. Levoska, S. Leppavuori, and A. Sternberg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3191 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Xu, C.

Y. Kawata, C. Xu, and W. Denk, J. Appl. Phys. 85, 1294 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zayats, A. V.

I. I. Smolyaninov, A. V. Zayats, and C. C. Davis, Phys. Rev. B 56, 9290 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zenhausern, F.

F. Zenhausern, M. P. O’Boyle, and H. K. Wichramasinghe, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1623 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

V. Kirilyuk, A. Kirilyuk, and Th. Rasing, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2306 (1997).
[CrossRef]

F. Zenhausern, M. P. O’Boyle, and H. K. Wichramasinghe, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1623 (1994).
[CrossRef]

L. D. Rotter, D. L. Kaiser, and M. D. Vaudin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 310 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Tyunina, J. Wittborn, K. V. Rao, J. Levoska, S. Leppavuori, and A. Sternberg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3191 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

Y. Kawata, C. Xu, and W. Denk, J. Appl. Phys. 85, 1294 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

J. I. Gersten and A. Nitzan, J. Chem. Phys. 73, 3023 (1980).

Opt. Commun. (1)

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, B. Vohnsen, and K. Pedersen, Opt. Commun. 150, 49 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. B (2)

C. Ohlhoff, G. Lupke, C. Meyer, and H. Kurz, Phys. Rev. B 55, 4596 (1997).
[CrossRef]

I. I. Smolyaninov, A. V. Zayats, and C. C. Davis, Phys. Rev. B 56, 9290 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

I. I. Smolyaninov, C. H. Lee, and C. C. Davis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2429 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Today (1)

O. Auciello, J. F. Scott, and R. Ramesh, Phys. Today 51(7), 22 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Prog. Surf. Sci. (1)

J. F. McGilp, Prog. Surf. Sci. 49, 1 (1995).

Science (1)

E. Betzig and J. K. Trautman, Science 257, 189 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ultramicroscopy (1)

L. Novotny, D. W. Pohl, and B. Hecht, Ultramicroscopy 61, 1 (1995).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic view of our near-field SH microscopy setup. p- and s-polarization directions of the fundamental light are indicated.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Simultaneously measured (a) shear-force topographical and (b), (c) SH near-field optical images of a 0.5-µm-thick PZT film surface obtained with p- and s-polarized excitation light, respectively. The size of the images is 3 µm by 3 µm. Height variation within the topographical image is 82 nm. (d) Cross section of the near-field image along the direction shown in (b). The apparent domain boundary width shown by the markers is 80 nm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Near-field SH signal dependencies on the polarization of the fundamental light for three poling directions of BaTiO3 crystal (shown by the solid-black-tipped arrows) with respect to the incoming fundamental light (shown by the short, straight lines). p- and s-polarization directions of the fundamental light are indicated.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Simultaneously measured (a) topographical and (b) SH near-field optical images of a PZT film. 3 µm by 3 µm images were obtained with p-polarized excitation light. Height variation within the topographical image is 90 nm. (c) Near-field SH signal dependencies on the polarization of the fundamental light taken at points A, B, and C of the images.

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