Abstract

Surface plasmons are electromagnetic surface waves whose k vectors are greater than that of free-space radiation. We excite surface plasmons by using an oil-immersion lens, which forms one arm of an interferometer. We demonstrate the way in which the characteristic output variation with defocus is determined by the propagation properties of the surface plasmons, which leads to diffraction-limited surface plasmon microscopy in the far field.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1988).
  2. S. Lofas and B. Johnsson, J. Chem. Soc. Chem. Commun. 21, 1526 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  3. E. Yeatman and E. A. Ash, Electron. Lett. 23, 1091 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  4. W. Hickel and W. Knoll, J. Appl. Phys. 67, 3572 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  5. N. Kroo, J.-P. Thost, M. Volcker, W. Krieger, and H. Walter, Europhys. Lett. 15, 289 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  6. W. Parmon and H. L. Bertoni, Electron. Lett. 15, 684 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  7. C. Ilett, M. G. Somekh, and G. A. D. Briggs, Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 393, 171 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  8. H. Zhou and C. J. R. Sheppard, J. Mod. Opt. 44, 1553 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  9. H. Kano, S. Mizuguchi, and S. Kawata, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 1381 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. Schrader and S. W. Hell, J. Microsc. 183, 189 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. L. Migdall, B. Roop, Y. C. Zheng, J. E. Hardis, and G. J. Xia, Appl. Opt. 29, 5136 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

1997 (1)

H. Zhou and C. J. R. Sheppard, J. Mod. Opt. 44, 1553 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

M. Schrader and S. W. Hell, J. Microsc. 183, 189 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

N. Kroo, J.-P. Thost, M. Volcker, W. Krieger, and H. Walter, Europhys. Lett. 15, 289 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (3)

S. Lofas and B. Johnsson, J. Chem. Soc. Chem. Commun. 21, 1526 (1990).
[CrossRef]

W. Hickel and W. Knoll, J. Appl. Phys. 67, 3572 (1990).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Migdall, B. Roop, Y. C. Zheng, J. E. Hardis, and G. J. Xia, Appl. Opt. 29, 5136 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987 (1)

E. Yeatman and E. A. Ash, Electron. Lett. 23, 1091 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

C. Ilett, M. G. Somekh, and G. A. D. Briggs, Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 393, 171 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

W. Parmon and H. L. Bertoni, Electron. Lett. 15, 684 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Ash, E. A.

E. Yeatman and E. A. Ash, Electron. Lett. 23, 1091 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Bertoni, H. L.

W. Parmon and H. L. Bertoni, Electron. Lett. 15, 684 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Briggs, G. A. D.

C. Ilett, M. G. Somekh, and G. A. D. Briggs, Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 393, 171 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Hardis, J. E.

Hell, S. W.

M. Schrader and S. W. Hell, J. Microsc. 183, 189 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hickel, W.

W. Hickel and W. Knoll, J. Appl. Phys. 67, 3572 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Ilett, C.

C. Ilett, M. G. Somekh, and G. A. D. Briggs, Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 393, 171 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Johnsson, B.

S. Lofas and B. Johnsson, J. Chem. Soc. Chem. Commun. 21, 1526 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Kano, H.

Kawata, S.

Knoll, W.

W. Hickel and W. Knoll, J. Appl. Phys. 67, 3572 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Krieger, W.

N. Kroo, J.-P. Thost, M. Volcker, W. Krieger, and H. Walter, Europhys. Lett. 15, 289 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kroo, N.

N. Kroo, J.-P. Thost, M. Volcker, W. Krieger, and H. Walter, Europhys. Lett. 15, 289 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Lofas, S.

S. Lofas and B. Johnsson, J. Chem. Soc. Chem. Commun. 21, 1526 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Migdall, A. L.

Mizuguchi, S.

Parmon, W.

W. Parmon and H. L. Bertoni, Electron. Lett. 15, 684 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Raether, H.

H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1988).

Roop, B.

Schrader, M.

M. Schrader and S. W. Hell, J. Microsc. 183, 189 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sheppard, C. J. R.

H. Zhou and C. J. R. Sheppard, J. Mod. Opt. 44, 1553 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Somekh, M. G.

C. Ilett, M. G. Somekh, and G. A. D. Briggs, Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 393, 171 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Thost, J.-P.

N. Kroo, J.-P. Thost, M. Volcker, W. Krieger, and H. Walter, Europhys. Lett. 15, 289 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Volcker, M.

N. Kroo, J.-P. Thost, M. Volcker, W. Krieger, and H. Walter, Europhys. Lett. 15, 289 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Walter, H.

N. Kroo, J.-P. Thost, M. Volcker, W. Krieger, and H. Walter, Europhys. Lett. 15, 289 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Xia, G. J.

Yeatman, E.

E. Yeatman and E. A. Ash, Electron. Lett. 23, 1091 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, Y. C.

Zhou, H.

H. Zhou and C. J. R. Sheppard, J. Mod. Opt. 44, 1553 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Electron. Lett. (2)

E. Yeatman and E. A. Ash, Electron. Lett. 23, 1091 (1987).
[CrossRef]

W. Parmon and H. L. Bertoni, Electron. Lett. 15, 684 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Europhys. Lett. (1)

N. Kroo, J.-P. Thost, M. Volcker, W. Krieger, and H. Walter, Europhys. Lett. 15, 289 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

W. Hickel and W. Knoll, J. Appl. Phys. 67, 3572 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Soc. Chem. Commun. (1)

S. Lofas and B. Johnsson, J. Chem. Soc. Chem. Commun. 21, 1526 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Microsc. (1)

M. Schrader and S. W. Hell, J. Microsc. 183, 189 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

H. Zhou and C. J. R. Sheppard, J. Mod. Opt. 44, 1553 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A (1)

C. Ilett, M. G. Somekh, and G. A. D. Briggs, Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 393, 171 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1988).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic diagram showing the principal ray paths when the sample is defocused. (b) Light polarization above the microscope objective, showing continuous variation between pure s and pure p polarization and the corresponding change in SP excitation.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic diagram of the heterodyne interferometer used for the measurements.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental Vz curves for coverslips coated with chromium–gold (thicker curve) and with chromium–gold overlaid with a dielectric (thinner curve).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Surface plasmon microscope images of a structured sample. (a) Sample at defocus, z=0 µm; (b) same region with defocus z=1.5 µm; (c) same region with defocus z=-1.85 µm. Image dimensions, 9 µm×12 µm.

Equations (1)

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Δz=λ2n1-cosθp,

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