Abstract

We report the experimental characterization of mechanically induced long-period fiber gratings (LPFG’s) made by pressing a plate with periodic grooves against a short length of fiber. This filter, which is simple and inexpensive, exhibits transmission spectra and temperature stability similar to those of photoinduced LPFG’s. It also offers the unique advantages of being tunable, erasable, and reconfigurable. Its polarization dependence also makes it useful as a polarizer, although it can also be eliminated with simple mechanical designs.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. M. Vengsarkar, J. R. Pedrazzani, J. B. Judkins, P. J. Lemaire, N. S. Bergano, and C. R. Davidson, Opt. Lett. 21, 336 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  3. C. W. Hodgson and A. M. Vengsarkar, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 2 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), p. 29, paper TUG3.
  4. R. C. Youngquist, J. L. Brooks, and H. J. Shaw, Opt. Lett. 8, 656 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. R. C. Youngquist, J. L. Brooks, and H. J. Shaw, Opt. Lett. 9, 177 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. M. Tachibana, R. I. Laming, P. R. Morkel, and D. N. Payne, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 118 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. Tachibana, R. I. Laming, P. R. Morkel, and D. N. Payne, in Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications, Vol. 13 of 1990 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), p. 44, paper MD1.
  8. J. B. Judkins, J. R. Pedrazzani, D. J. DiGiovanni, and A. M. Vengsarkar, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 2 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), paper PD1.
  9. T. Enomono, M. Shigehara, S. Ishikawa, T. Danzuka, and H. Kanamori, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 2 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), p. 277, paper ThG2.

1996 (2)

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Vengsarkar, J. R. Pedrazzani, J. B. Judkins, P. J. Lemaire, N. S. Bergano, and C. R. Davidson, Opt. Lett. 21, 336 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

M. Tachibana, R. I. Laming, P. R. Morkel, and D. N. Payne, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 118 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

1983 (1)

Bergano, N. S.

Bhatia, V.

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Brooks, J. L.

Danzuka, T.

T. Enomono, M. Shigehara, S. Ishikawa, T. Danzuka, and H. Kanamori, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 2 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), p. 277, paper ThG2.

Davidson, C. R.

DiGiovanni, D. J.

J. B. Judkins, J. R. Pedrazzani, D. J. DiGiovanni, and A. M. Vengsarkar, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 2 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), paper PD1.

Enomono, T.

T. Enomono, M. Shigehara, S. Ishikawa, T. Danzuka, and H. Kanamori, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 2 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), p. 277, paper ThG2.

Erdogan, T.

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hodgson, C. W.

C. W. Hodgson and A. M. Vengsarkar, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 2 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), p. 29, paper TUG3.

Ishikawa, S.

T. Enomono, M. Shigehara, S. Ishikawa, T. Danzuka, and H. Kanamori, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 2 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), p. 277, paper ThG2.

Judkins, J. B.

A. M. Vengsarkar, J. R. Pedrazzani, J. B. Judkins, P. J. Lemaire, N. S. Bergano, and C. R. Davidson, Opt. Lett. 21, 336 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Judkins, J. R. Pedrazzani, D. J. DiGiovanni, and A. M. Vengsarkar, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 2 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), paper PD1.

Kanamori, H.

T. Enomono, M. Shigehara, S. Ishikawa, T. Danzuka, and H. Kanamori, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 2 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), p. 277, paper ThG2.

Laming, R. I.

M. Tachibana, R. I. Laming, P. R. Morkel, and D. N. Payne, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 118 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. Tachibana, R. I. Laming, P. R. Morkel, and D. N. Payne, in Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications, Vol. 13 of 1990 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), p. 44, paper MD1.

Lemaire, P. J.

A. M. Vengsarkar, J. R. Pedrazzani, J. B. Judkins, P. J. Lemaire, N. S. Bergano, and C. R. Davidson, Opt. Lett. 21, 336 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Morkel, P. R.

M. Tachibana, R. I. Laming, P. R. Morkel, and D. N. Payne, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 118 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. Tachibana, R. I. Laming, P. R. Morkel, and D. N. Payne, in Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications, Vol. 13 of 1990 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), p. 44, paper MD1.

Payne, D. N.

M. Tachibana, R. I. Laming, P. R. Morkel, and D. N. Payne, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 118 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. Tachibana, R. I. Laming, P. R. Morkel, and D. N. Payne, in Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications, Vol. 13 of 1990 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), p. 44, paper MD1.

Pedrazzani, J. R.

A. M. Vengsarkar, J. R. Pedrazzani, J. B. Judkins, P. J. Lemaire, N. S. Bergano, and C. R. Davidson, Opt. Lett. 21, 336 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Judkins, J. R. Pedrazzani, D. J. DiGiovanni, and A. M. Vengsarkar, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 2 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), paper PD1.

Shaw, H. J.

Shigehara, M.

T. Enomono, M. Shigehara, S. Ishikawa, T. Danzuka, and H. Kanamori, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 2 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), p. 277, paper ThG2.

Sipe, J. E.

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tachibana, M.

M. Tachibana, R. I. Laming, P. R. Morkel, and D. N. Payne, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 118 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. Tachibana, R. I. Laming, P. R. Morkel, and D. N. Payne, in Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications, Vol. 13 of 1990 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), p. 44, paper MD1.

Vengsarkar, A. M.

A. M. Vengsarkar, J. R. Pedrazzani, J. B. Judkins, P. J. Lemaire, N. S. Bergano, and C. R. Davidson, Opt. Lett. 21, 336 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Hodgson and A. M. Vengsarkar, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 2 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), p. 29, paper TUG3.

J. B. Judkins, J. R. Pedrazzani, D. J. DiGiovanni, and A. M. Vengsarkar, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 2 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), paper PD1.

Youngquist, R. C.

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

M. Tachibana, R. I. Laming, P. R. Morkel, and D. N. Payne, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 118 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Other (4)

C. W. Hodgson and A. M. Vengsarkar, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 2 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), p. 29, paper TUG3.

M. Tachibana, R. I. Laming, P. R. Morkel, and D. N. Payne, in Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications, Vol. 13 of 1990 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), p. 44, paper MD1.

J. B. Judkins, J. R. Pedrazzani, D. J. DiGiovanni, and A. M. Vengsarkar, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 2 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), paper PD1.

T. Enomono, M. Shigehara, S. Ishikawa, T. Danzuka, and H. Kanamori, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 2 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), p. 277, paper ThG2.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Side view of a mechanically induced LPFG.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Measured transmission spectra for gratings with the same length (3.5 cm) but different effective periods, obtained by tilting the fiber under the grooved plate.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured transmission spectra of a grating with Λ=712 µm measured for an applied pressure increasing from p1 to p5.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measured transmission spectrum of a grating with Λ=630 µm and L=4.5 cm, with the fiber under slight tension, showing 0.2 dB out-of-band loss.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Transmission spectra for a grating with Λ=630 µm and L=4.5 cm measured for two orthogonal linear polarizations (filled data points) and for unpolarized light (dashed curve). The open circles represent the average of the two polarized curves.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Measured Temperature Dependence of Peak Wavelength and Peak Attenuation of a Mechanically Induced LPFG and Comparison with Photoinduced LPFG

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