Abstract

Accelerated aging of gratings written in UV presensitized hydrogen outdiffused optical fibers show that these gratings are more stable than standard gratings written in hydrogen-loaded fibers. They are observed to grow initially by as much as 2%. The predicted decay after 25 years at 80 °C is 0.1%. The results suggest that the index modulation decay is so slow that postfabrication annealing can be avoided.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. Canning, R. Pasman, M. G. Sceats, and P. A. Krug, in Photosensitivity and Quadratic Nonlinearity in Glass Waveguides: Fundamentals and Applications, Vol. 22 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 86–89.
  2. J. Canning and M. Åslund, in Conference on Photosensitivity and Quadratic Nonlinearity in Glass Waveguides: Fundamentals and Applications (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), pp. 27–29; in Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity, and Poling in Glass Waveguides, E. J. Friebele, R. Kashyap, and T. Erdogan, eds., Vol. 33 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., to be published).
  3. M. Åslund, J. Canning, and G. Yoffe, Opt. Lett. 24, 1826 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. Canning, Proc. SPIE 3896, 769 (1999).
  5. H. G. Inglis, “Photo-induced effects in opticals fibres,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia, 1997).
  6. G. E. Kohnke, D. W. Nightingale, P. G. Wigley, and C. R. Pollock, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC’99), 1999 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), paper PD20.
  7. R. J. Egan, H. G. Inglis, P. Hill, P. A. Krug, and F. Ouellette, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 2 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), paper TuO3F.
  8. C. A. Angell, Science 267, 1924 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. S. R. Baker, H. N. Rourke, V. Baker, and D. Goodchild, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 8 (1997).
    [CrossRef]

1999

1997

S. R. Baker, H. N. Rourke, V. Baker, and D. Goodchild, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 8 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995

C. A. Angell, Science 267, 1924 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Angell, C. A.

C. A. Angell, Science 267, 1924 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Åslund, M.

M. Åslund, J. Canning, and G. Yoffe, Opt. Lett. 24, 1826 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Canning and M. Åslund, in Conference on Photosensitivity and Quadratic Nonlinearity in Glass Waveguides: Fundamentals and Applications (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), pp. 27–29; in Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity, and Poling in Glass Waveguides, E. J. Friebele, R. Kashyap, and T. Erdogan, eds., Vol. 33 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., to be published).

Baker, S. R.

S. R. Baker, H. N. Rourke, V. Baker, and D. Goodchild, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 8 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Baker, V.

S. R. Baker, H. N. Rourke, V. Baker, and D. Goodchild, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 8 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Canning, J.

M. Åslund, J. Canning, and G. Yoffe, Opt. Lett. 24, 1826 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Canning, Proc. SPIE 3896, 769 (1999).

J. Canning, R. Pasman, M. G. Sceats, and P. A. Krug, in Photosensitivity and Quadratic Nonlinearity in Glass Waveguides: Fundamentals and Applications, Vol. 22 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 86–89.

J. Canning and M. Åslund, in Conference on Photosensitivity and Quadratic Nonlinearity in Glass Waveguides: Fundamentals and Applications (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), pp. 27–29; in Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity, and Poling in Glass Waveguides, E. J. Friebele, R. Kashyap, and T. Erdogan, eds., Vol. 33 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., to be published).

Egan, R. J.

R. J. Egan, H. G. Inglis, P. Hill, P. A. Krug, and F. Ouellette, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 2 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), paper TuO3F.

Goodchild, D.

S. R. Baker, H. N. Rourke, V. Baker, and D. Goodchild, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 8 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hill, P.

R. J. Egan, H. G. Inglis, P. Hill, P. A. Krug, and F. Ouellette, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 2 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), paper TuO3F.

Inglis, H. G.

R. J. Egan, H. G. Inglis, P. Hill, P. A. Krug, and F. Ouellette, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 2 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), paper TuO3F.

H. G. Inglis, “Photo-induced effects in opticals fibres,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia, 1997).

Kohnke, G. E.

G. E. Kohnke, D. W. Nightingale, P. G. Wigley, and C. R. Pollock, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC’99), 1999 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), paper PD20.

Krug, P. A.

J. Canning, R. Pasman, M. G. Sceats, and P. A. Krug, in Photosensitivity and Quadratic Nonlinearity in Glass Waveguides: Fundamentals and Applications, Vol. 22 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 86–89.

R. J. Egan, H. G. Inglis, P. Hill, P. A. Krug, and F. Ouellette, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 2 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), paper TuO3F.

Nightingale, D. W.

G. E. Kohnke, D. W. Nightingale, P. G. Wigley, and C. R. Pollock, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC’99), 1999 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), paper PD20.

Ouellette, F.

R. J. Egan, H. G. Inglis, P. Hill, P. A. Krug, and F. Ouellette, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 2 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), paper TuO3F.

Pasman, R.

J. Canning, R. Pasman, M. G. Sceats, and P. A. Krug, in Photosensitivity and Quadratic Nonlinearity in Glass Waveguides: Fundamentals and Applications, Vol. 22 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 86–89.

Pollock, C. R.

G. E. Kohnke, D. W. Nightingale, P. G. Wigley, and C. R. Pollock, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC’99), 1999 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), paper PD20.

Rourke, H. N.

S. R. Baker, H. N. Rourke, V. Baker, and D. Goodchild, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 8 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sceats, M. G.

J. Canning, R. Pasman, M. G. Sceats, and P. A. Krug, in Photosensitivity and Quadratic Nonlinearity in Glass Waveguides: Fundamentals and Applications, Vol. 22 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 86–89.

Wigley, P. G.

G. E. Kohnke, D. W. Nightingale, P. G. Wigley, and C. R. Pollock, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC’99), 1999 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), paper PD20.

Yoffe, G.

J. Lightwave Technol.

S. R. Baker, H. N. Rourke, V. Baker, and D. Goodchild, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 8 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Proc. SPIE

J. Canning, Proc. SPIE 3896, 769 (1999).

Science

C. A. Angell, Science 267, 1924 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

J. Canning, R. Pasman, M. G. Sceats, and P. A. Krug, in Photosensitivity and Quadratic Nonlinearity in Glass Waveguides: Fundamentals and Applications, Vol. 22 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 86–89.

J. Canning and M. Åslund, in Conference on Photosensitivity and Quadratic Nonlinearity in Glass Waveguides: Fundamentals and Applications (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), pp. 27–29; in Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity, and Poling in Glass Waveguides, E. J. Friebele, R. Kashyap, and T. Erdogan, eds., Vol. 33 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., to be published).

H. G. Inglis, “Photo-induced effects in opticals fibres,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia, 1997).

G. E. Kohnke, D. W. Nightingale, P. G. Wigley, and C. R. Pollock, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC’99), 1999 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), paper PD20.

R. J. Egan, H. G. Inglis, P. Hill, P. A. Krug, and F. Ouellette, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 2 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), paper TuO3F.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Annealing curves at three temperatures for gratings written into hydrogen-loaded fiber. Hydrogen was outdiffused before annealing. Stretched exponential fits are shown.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Annealing curves at three temperatures for gratings written into presensitized hydrogen-loaded fibers. Hydrogen was outdiffused before grating writing. (a) Index modulation versus time (linear scale). Stretched exponential fits are shown. (b) Index modulation versus time (log scale). An initial rise is observed at lower temperatures.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Arrhenius plots for gratings written into hydrogen-loaded fiber (open squares) and into preexposed hydrogen-loaded fiber subsequently outdiffused before grating writing (filled squares).

Equations (2)

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Nt=N0 exp-t/τβ,
k=A exp-Ea/RT,

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