Abstract

We fabricated a planar aperture–mounted (PAM) slider by use of a focused ion beam to demonstrate fast data acquisition for near-field optical data storage. The aperture 200 nm×500 nm was formed upon the Ti-coated air-bearing surface of the slider and was directly illuminated with a laser λ=532 nm beam spot by use of an objective lens N.A.,0.55. The light transmitted through the aperture was modulated by a Ti-coated SiO2 disk with 200- and 400-nm-wide line-and-space (L&S) patterns engraved by electron-beam lithography. The optical throughput of the taperless aperture was greater than 0.02. By use of the PAM slider, 400- and 200-nm L&S signals were detected at linear velocities of 6 and 3 m/s, respectively, corresponding to a data-transfer rate of 7.5 MHz.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. W. Pohl and D. Courjon, eds., Near Field Optics (Kluwer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1993).
    [CrossRef]
  2. E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner, and R. L. Kostelak, Science 251, 1468 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, R. Wolfe, E. M. Gyorgy, P. L. Finn, M. H. Kryder, and C. H. Chang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 142 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. Hosaka, T. Shintani, M. Miyamoto, A. Kikukawa, A. Hirotune, M. Terao, M. Yoshida, K. Fujita, and S. Kammer, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, 443 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  5. D. W. Pohl, IBM J. Res. Dev. 39, 701 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. B. Lee, A. Sato, K. Tsutsui, M. Ohtsu, and N. Atoda, presented at Near Field Optics-5, the Fifth International Conference on Near Field Optics and Related Techniques, Shirahama, Japan, December 6–10, 1998.
  7. T. Yatsui, M. Kourogi, K. Tsutsui, and M. Ohtsu, presented at Near Field Optics-5, the Fifth International Conference on Near Field Optics and Related Techniques, Shirahama, Japan, December 6–10, 1998.
  8. K. Ito, A. Kikukawa, and S. Hosaka, presented at Near Field Optics-5, the Fifth International Conference on Near Field Optics and Related Techniques, Shirahama, Japan, December 6–10, 1998.
  9. J. Tominaga, T. Nakano, and N. Atoda, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2078 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  10. F. Baida, D. Courjon, and G. Tribillon, in Near Field Optics, D. W. Pohl and D. Courjon, eds. (Kluwer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1993), p. 77.
  11. M. Muranishi, K. Sato, S. Hosaka, A. Kikukawa, T. Shintani, and K. Ito, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2 36, L942 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  12. T. Yatsui, M. Kourogi, and M. Ohtsu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2090 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  13. Th. Lacoste, Th. Huser, R. Prioli, and H. Heinzelmann, Ultramicroscopy 71, 333 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. A. Veerman, A. M. Otter, L. Kuipers, and N. F. van Hulst, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 3115 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  15. S. Pilevar, K. Edinger, W. Atiga, I. Smolyaninov, and C. Davis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 3133 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  16. C. Huang, “On the diffraction of electromagnetic waves by annular, elliptical and rectangular apertures,” (U.S. Office of Naval Research, Washington, D.C., 1953).
  17. K. Hongo and G. Ishii, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. AP-26, 494 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  18. A. Yariv, Introduction to Optical Electronics, Holt, Rinehart & Winston Series in Electrical Engineering, Electronics, and Systems (Holt, Rinehart & Winston, New York, 1971).
  19. B. D. Terris, H. J. Mamin, and D. Rugar, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 141 (1996).
    [CrossRef]

1998

T. Yatsui, M. Kourogi, and M. Ohtsu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2090 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Th. Lacoste, Th. Huser, R. Prioli, and H. Heinzelmann, Ultramicroscopy 71, 333 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Veerman, A. M. Otter, L. Kuipers, and N. F. van Hulst, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 3115 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Pilevar, K. Edinger, W. Atiga, I. Smolyaninov, and C. Davis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 3133 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Tominaga, T. Nakano, and N. Atoda, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2078 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

M. Muranishi, K. Sato, S. Hosaka, A. Kikukawa, T. Shintani, and K. Ito, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2 36, L942 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

B. D. Terris, H. J. Mamin, and D. Rugar, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 141 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Hosaka, T. Shintani, M. Miyamoto, A. Kikukawa, A. Hirotune, M. Terao, M. Yoshida, K. Fujita, and S. Kammer, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, 443 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

D. W. Pohl, IBM J. Res. Dev. 39, 701 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1992

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, R. Wolfe, E. M. Gyorgy, P. L. Finn, M. H. Kryder, and C. H. Chang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 142 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner, and R. L. Kostelak, Science 251, 1468 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1978

K. Hongo and G. Ishii, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. AP-26, 494 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Atiga, W.

S. Pilevar, K. Edinger, W. Atiga, I. Smolyaninov, and C. Davis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 3133 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Atoda, N.

J. Tominaga, T. Nakano, and N. Atoda, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2078 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Lee, A. Sato, K. Tsutsui, M. Ohtsu, and N. Atoda, presented at Near Field Optics-5, the Fifth International Conference on Near Field Optics and Related Techniques, Shirahama, Japan, December 6–10, 1998.

Baida, F.

F. Baida, D. Courjon, and G. Tribillon, in Near Field Optics, D. W. Pohl and D. Courjon, eds. (Kluwer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1993), p. 77.

Betzig, E.

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, R. Wolfe, E. M. Gyorgy, P. L. Finn, M. H. Kryder, and C. H. Chang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 142 (1992).
[CrossRef]

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner, and R. L. Kostelak, Science 251, 1468 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, C. H.

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, R. Wolfe, E. M. Gyorgy, P. L. Finn, M. H. Kryder, and C. H. Chang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 142 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Courjon, D.

F. Baida, D. Courjon, and G. Tribillon, in Near Field Optics, D. W. Pohl and D. Courjon, eds. (Kluwer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1993), p. 77.

Davis, C.

S. Pilevar, K. Edinger, W. Atiga, I. Smolyaninov, and C. Davis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 3133 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Edinger, K.

S. Pilevar, K. Edinger, W. Atiga, I. Smolyaninov, and C. Davis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 3133 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Finn, P. L.

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, R. Wolfe, E. M. Gyorgy, P. L. Finn, M. H. Kryder, and C. H. Chang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 142 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Fujita, K.

S. Hosaka, T. Shintani, M. Miyamoto, A. Kikukawa, A. Hirotune, M. Terao, M. Yoshida, K. Fujita, and S. Kammer, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, 443 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gyorgy, E. M.

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, R. Wolfe, E. M. Gyorgy, P. L. Finn, M. H. Kryder, and C. H. Chang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 142 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Harris, T. D.

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner, and R. L. Kostelak, Science 251, 1468 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heinzelmann, H.

Th. Lacoste, Th. Huser, R. Prioli, and H. Heinzelmann, Ultramicroscopy 71, 333 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hirotune, A.

S. Hosaka, T. Shintani, M. Miyamoto, A. Kikukawa, A. Hirotune, M. Terao, M. Yoshida, K. Fujita, and S. Kammer, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, 443 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hongo, K.

K. Hongo and G. Ishii, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. AP-26, 494 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Hosaka, S.

M. Muranishi, K. Sato, S. Hosaka, A. Kikukawa, T. Shintani, and K. Ito, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2 36, L942 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Hosaka, T. Shintani, M. Miyamoto, A. Kikukawa, A. Hirotune, M. Terao, M. Yoshida, K. Fujita, and S. Kammer, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, 443 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. Ito, A. Kikukawa, and S. Hosaka, presented at Near Field Optics-5, the Fifth International Conference on Near Field Optics and Related Techniques, Shirahama, Japan, December 6–10, 1998.

Huang, C.

C. Huang, “On the diffraction of electromagnetic waves by annular, elliptical and rectangular apertures,” (U.S. Office of Naval Research, Washington, D.C., 1953).

Huser, Th.

Th. Lacoste, Th. Huser, R. Prioli, and H. Heinzelmann, Ultramicroscopy 71, 333 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ishii, G.

K. Hongo and G. Ishii, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. AP-26, 494 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Ito, K.

M. Muranishi, K. Sato, S. Hosaka, A. Kikukawa, T. Shintani, and K. Ito, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2 36, L942 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. Ito, A. Kikukawa, and S. Hosaka, presented at Near Field Optics-5, the Fifth International Conference on Near Field Optics and Related Techniques, Shirahama, Japan, December 6–10, 1998.

Kammer, S.

S. Hosaka, T. Shintani, M. Miyamoto, A. Kikukawa, A. Hirotune, M. Terao, M. Yoshida, K. Fujita, and S. Kammer, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, 443 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kikukawa, A.

M. Muranishi, K. Sato, S. Hosaka, A. Kikukawa, T. Shintani, and K. Ito, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2 36, L942 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Hosaka, T. Shintani, M. Miyamoto, A. Kikukawa, A. Hirotune, M. Terao, M. Yoshida, K. Fujita, and S. Kammer, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, 443 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. Ito, A. Kikukawa, and S. Hosaka, presented at Near Field Optics-5, the Fifth International Conference on Near Field Optics and Related Techniques, Shirahama, Japan, December 6–10, 1998.

Kostelak, R. L.

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner, and R. L. Kostelak, Science 251, 1468 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kourogi, M.

T. Yatsui, M. Kourogi, and M. Ohtsu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2090 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. Yatsui, M. Kourogi, K. Tsutsui, and M. Ohtsu, presented at Near Field Optics-5, the Fifth International Conference on Near Field Optics and Related Techniques, Shirahama, Japan, December 6–10, 1998.

Kryder, M. H.

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, R. Wolfe, E. M. Gyorgy, P. L. Finn, M. H. Kryder, and C. H. Chang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 142 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kuipers, L.

J. A. Veerman, A. M. Otter, L. Kuipers, and N. F. van Hulst, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 3115 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lacoste, Th.

Th. Lacoste, Th. Huser, R. Prioli, and H. Heinzelmann, Ultramicroscopy 71, 333 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lee, M. B.

M. B. Lee, A. Sato, K. Tsutsui, M. Ohtsu, and N. Atoda, presented at Near Field Optics-5, the Fifth International Conference on Near Field Optics and Related Techniques, Shirahama, Japan, December 6–10, 1998.

Mamin, H. J.

B. D. Terris, H. J. Mamin, and D. Rugar, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 141 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Miyamoto, M.

S. Hosaka, T. Shintani, M. Miyamoto, A. Kikukawa, A. Hirotune, M. Terao, M. Yoshida, K. Fujita, and S. Kammer, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, 443 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Muranishi, M.

M. Muranishi, K. Sato, S. Hosaka, A. Kikukawa, T. Shintani, and K. Ito, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2 36, L942 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nakano, T.

J. Tominaga, T. Nakano, and N. Atoda, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2078 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ohtsu, M.

T. Yatsui, M. Kourogi, and M. Ohtsu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2090 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. Yatsui, M. Kourogi, K. Tsutsui, and M. Ohtsu, presented at Near Field Optics-5, the Fifth International Conference on Near Field Optics and Related Techniques, Shirahama, Japan, December 6–10, 1998.

M. B. Lee, A. Sato, K. Tsutsui, M. Ohtsu, and N. Atoda, presented at Near Field Optics-5, the Fifth International Conference on Near Field Optics and Related Techniques, Shirahama, Japan, December 6–10, 1998.

Otter, A. M.

J. A. Veerman, A. M. Otter, L. Kuipers, and N. F. van Hulst, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 3115 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pilevar, S.

S. Pilevar, K. Edinger, W. Atiga, I. Smolyaninov, and C. Davis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 3133 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pohl, D. W.

D. W. Pohl, IBM J. Res. Dev. 39, 701 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Prioli, R.

Th. Lacoste, Th. Huser, R. Prioli, and H. Heinzelmann, Ultramicroscopy 71, 333 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rugar, D.

B. D. Terris, H. J. Mamin, and D. Rugar, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 141 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sato, A.

M. B. Lee, A. Sato, K. Tsutsui, M. Ohtsu, and N. Atoda, presented at Near Field Optics-5, the Fifth International Conference on Near Field Optics and Related Techniques, Shirahama, Japan, December 6–10, 1998.

Sato, K.

M. Muranishi, K. Sato, S. Hosaka, A. Kikukawa, T. Shintani, and K. Ito, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2 36, L942 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Shintani, T.

M. Muranishi, K. Sato, S. Hosaka, A. Kikukawa, T. Shintani, and K. Ito, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2 36, L942 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Hosaka, T. Shintani, M. Miyamoto, A. Kikukawa, A. Hirotune, M. Terao, M. Yoshida, K. Fujita, and S. Kammer, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, 443 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Smolyaninov, I.

S. Pilevar, K. Edinger, W. Atiga, I. Smolyaninov, and C. Davis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 3133 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Terao, M.

S. Hosaka, T. Shintani, M. Miyamoto, A. Kikukawa, A. Hirotune, M. Terao, M. Yoshida, K. Fujita, and S. Kammer, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, 443 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Terris, B. D.

B. D. Terris, H. J. Mamin, and D. Rugar, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 141 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tominaga, J.

J. Tominaga, T. Nakano, and N. Atoda, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2078 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Trautman, J. K.

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, R. Wolfe, E. M. Gyorgy, P. L. Finn, M. H. Kryder, and C. H. Chang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 142 (1992).
[CrossRef]

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner, and R. L. Kostelak, Science 251, 1468 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tribillon, G.

F. Baida, D. Courjon, and G. Tribillon, in Near Field Optics, D. W. Pohl and D. Courjon, eds. (Kluwer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1993), p. 77.

Tsutsui, K.

M. B. Lee, A. Sato, K. Tsutsui, M. Ohtsu, and N. Atoda, presented at Near Field Optics-5, the Fifth International Conference on Near Field Optics and Related Techniques, Shirahama, Japan, December 6–10, 1998.

T. Yatsui, M. Kourogi, K. Tsutsui, and M. Ohtsu, presented at Near Field Optics-5, the Fifth International Conference on Near Field Optics and Related Techniques, Shirahama, Japan, December 6–10, 1998.

van Hulst, N. F.

J. A. Veerman, A. M. Otter, L. Kuipers, and N. F. van Hulst, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 3115 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Veerman, J. A.

J. A. Veerman, A. M. Otter, L. Kuipers, and N. F. van Hulst, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 3115 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Weiner, J. S.

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner, and R. L. Kostelak, Science 251, 1468 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wolfe, R.

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, R. Wolfe, E. M. Gyorgy, P. L. Finn, M. H. Kryder, and C. H. Chang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 142 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Yariv, A.

A. Yariv, Introduction to Optical Electronics, Holt, Rinehart & Winston Series in Electrical Engineering, Electronics, and Systems (Holt, Rinehart & Winston, New York, 1971).

Yatsui, T.

T. Yatsui, M. Kourogi, and M. Ohtsu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2090 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. Yatsui, M. Kourogi, K. Tsutsui, and M. Ohtsu, presented at Near Field Optics-5, the Fifth International Conference on Near Field Optics and Related Techniques, Shirahama, Japan, December 6–10, 1998.

Yoshida, M.

S. Hosaka, T. Shintani, M. Miyamoto, A. Kikukawa, A. Hirotune, M. Terao, M. Yoshida, K. Fujita, and S. Kammer, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, 443 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, R. Wolfe, E. M. Gyorgy, P. L. Finn, M. H. Kryder, and C. H. Chang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 142 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Tominaga, T. Nakano, and N. Atoda, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2078 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. Yatsui, M. Kourogi, and M. Ohtsu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2090 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Veerman, A. M. Otter, L. Kuipers, and N. F. van Hulst, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 3115 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Pilevar, K. Edinger, W. Atiga, I. Smolyaninov, and C. Davis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 3133 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. D. Terris, H. J. Mamin, and D. Rugar, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 141 (1996).
[CrossRef]

IBM J. Res. Dev.

D. W. Pohl, IBM J. Res. Dev. 39, 701 (1995).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag.

K. Hongo and G. Ishii, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. AP-26, 494 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

S. Hosaka, T. Shintani, M. Miyamoto, A. Kikukawa, A. Hirotune, M. Terao, M. Yoshida, K. Fujita, and S. Kammer, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, 443 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2

M. Muranishi, K. Sato, S. Hosaka, A. Kikukawa, T. Shintani, and K. Ito, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2 36, L942 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Science

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner, and R. L. Kostelak, Science 251, 1468 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ultramicroscopy

Th. Lacoste, Th. Huser, R. Prioli, and H. Heinzelmann, Ultramicroscopy 71, 333 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Other

F. Baida, D. Courjon, and G. Tribillon, in Near Field Optics, D. W. Pohl and D. Courjon, eds. (Kluwer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1993), p. 77.

A. Yariv, Introduction to Optical Electronics, Holt, Rinehart & Winston Series in Electrical Engineering, Electronics, and Systems (Holt, Rinehart & Winston, New York, 1971).

C. Huang, “On the diffraction of electromagnetic waves by annular, elliptical and rectangular apertures,” (U.S. Office of Naval Research, Washington, D.C., 1953).

D. W. Pohl and D. Courjon, eds., Near Field Optics (Kluwer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1993).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Lee, A. Sato, K. Tsutsui, M. Ohtsu, and N. Atoda, presented at Near Field Optics-5, the Fifth International Conference on Near Field Optics and Related Techniques, Shirahama, Japan, December 6–10, 1998.

T. Yatsui, M. Kourogi, K. Tsutsui, and M. Ohtsu, presented at Near Field Optics-5, the Fifth International Conference on Near Field Optics and Related Techniques, Shirahama, Japan, December 6–10, 1998.

K. Ito, A. Kikukawa, and S. Hosaka, presented at Near Field Optics-5, the Fifth International Conference on Near Field Optics and Related Techniques, Shirahama, Japan, December 6–10, 1998.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Planar aperture 200 nm×500 nm fabricated by FIB drilling: (a) AFM image of the aperture (top view), (b) vertical cross section of the planar aperture.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic diagram of the PAM slider.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Single-sweep waveforms corresponding to 7.5 MHz, as measured with the PAM slider operating in flying mode over a subwavelength-wide L&S pattern. (a) Pattern width, 400 nm; linear velocity, 6 m/s; estimated aperture–medium distance, 140 nm; illumination power, 0.13 mW. (b) Pattern width, 200 nm; linear velocity, 3 m/s; estimated aperture–medium distance, 83 nm; illumination power, 0.56 mW.

Equations (1)

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Δν=Peη/hνs22eidS/N,

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