Abstract

In a strong laser field, electrons tunnel from an atom at a rate determined by the instantaneous field. If the pulse is only a few cycles in duration, the highly nonlinear nature of tunnel ionization ensures that the resultant electron wave packet is primarily formed in less than one period. Measuring the direction of above-threshold-ionization electrons produced by circularly polarized light provides a direct method of measuring the absolute carrier phase of a single pulse. The method is robust, surviving spatial and temporal integration as well as intensity fluctuations.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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E. Cormier and P. Lambropoulos, Eur. Phys. J. D 2, 15 (1998).
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1997 (2)

1996 (1)

1994 (5)

1993 (3)

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[CrossRef]

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H. Helm, N. Bjerre, M. J. Dyer, D. L. Huestis, and M. Saeed, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 3221 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986 (2)

P. Brumer and M. Shapiro, Chem. Phys. Lett. 126, 541 (1986); Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 43, 257 (1992).

M. V. Ammosov, N. B. Delone, and V. Kraĭnov, Sov. Phys. JETP 64, 1191 (1986).

Ammosov, M. V.

M. V. Ammosov, N. B. Delone, and V. Kraĭnov, Sov. Phys. JETP 64, 1191 (1986).

Balcou, Ph.

M. Lewenstein, Ph. Balcou, M. Yu. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L’Huillier, M. Lewenstein, P. Salières, Ph. Balcou, M. Yu. Ivanov, J. Larsson, and C. G. Wahlström, Phys. Rev. A 48, R3433 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Bjerre, N.

H. Helm, N. Bjerre, M. J. Dyer, D. L. Huestis, and M. Saeed, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 3221 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brabec, T.

F. Krausz, T. Brabec, M. Schnürer, and Ch. Spielmann, Opt. Photon. News 9(7), 46 (1998); A. de Bohan, Ph. Antoine, D. B. Miloević, and B. Piraux, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 1837 (1998); G. Tempea, M. Geissler, and T. Brabec, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 669 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. Xu, Ch. Spielmann, A. Poppe, T. Brabec, F. Krausz, and T. W. Hänsch, Opt. Lett. 21, 2008 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brumer, P.

P. Brumer and M. Shapiro, Chem. Phys. Lett. 126, 541 (1986); Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 43, 257 (1992).

Burnett, N. H.

P. Dietrich, N. H. Burnett, M. Yu. Ivanov, and P. B. Corkum, Phys. Rev. A 50, R3585 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Corkum, N. H. Burnett, and M. Y. Ivanov, Opt. Lett. 19, 1870 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, Z.

Christov, I. P.

Corkum, P. B.

P. Dietrich, N. H. Burnett, M. Yu. Ivanov, and P. B. Corkum, Phys. Rev. A 50, R3585 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Corkum, N. H. Burnett, and M. Y. Ivanov, Opt. Lett. 19, 1870 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Lewenstein, Ph. Balcou, M. Yu. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. B. Corkum, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cormier, E.

E. Cormier and P. Lambropoulos, Eur. Phys. J. D 2, 15 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Delone, N. B.

M. V. Ammosov, N. B. Delone, and V. Kraĭnov, Sov. Phys. JETP 64, 1191 (1986).

DeSilvestri, S.

Dietrich, P.

P. Dietrich, N. H. Burnett, M. Yu. Ivanov, and P. B. Corkum, Phys. Rev. A 50, R3585 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Dyer, M. J.

H. Helm, N. Bjerre, M. J. Dyer, D. L. Huestis, and M. Saeed, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 3221 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ferencz, K.

Hänsch, T. W.

Helm, H.

H. Helm, N. Bjerre, M. J. Dyer, D. L. Huestis, and M. Saeed, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 3221 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, C.-P.

Huestis, D. L.

H. Helm, N. Bjerre, M. J. Dyer, D. L. Huestis, and M. Saeed, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 3221 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ivanov, M. Y.

Ivanov, M. Yu.

P. Dietrich, N. H. Burnett, M. Yu. Ivanov, and P. B. Corkum, Phys. Rev. A 50, R3585 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Lewenstein, Ph. Balcou, M. Yu. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L’Huillier, M. Lewenstein, P. Salières, Ph. Balcou, M. Yu. Ivanov, J. Larsson, and C. G. Wahlström, Phys. Rev. A 48, R3433 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kapteyn, H. C.

Krainov, V.

M. V. Ammosov, N. B. Delone, and V. Kraĭnov, Sov. Phys. JETP 64, 1191 (1986).

Krausz, F.

L’Huillier, A.

M. Lewenstein, Ph. Balcou, M. Yu. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L’Huillier, M. Lewenstein, P. Salières, Ph. Balcou, M. Yu. Ivanov, J. Larsson, and C. G. Wahlström, Phys. Rev. A 48, R3433 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Lambopoulos, P.

G. G. Paulus, W. Nicklich, H. Xu, P. Lambopoulos, and H. Walther, Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 2851 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lambropoulos, P.

E. Cormier and P. Lambropoulos, Eur. Phys. J. D 2, 15 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Larsson, J.

A. L’Huillier, M. Lewenstein, P. Salières, Ph. Balcou, M. Yu. Ivanov, J. Larsson, and C. G. Wahlström, Phys. Rev. A 48, R3433 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Lenzner, M.

Lewenstein, M.

M. Lewenstein, Ph. Balcou, M. Yu. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L’Huillier, M. Lewenstein, P. Salières, Ph. Balcou, M. Yu. Ivanov, J. Larsson, and C. G. Wahlström, Phys. Rev. A 48, R3433 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Murnane, M. M.

Nicklich, W.

G. G. Paulus, W. Nicklich, H. Xu, P. Lambopoulos, and H. Walther, Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 2851 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nisoli, M.

Paulus, G. G.

G. G. Paulus, W. Nicklich, H. Xu, P. Lambopoulos, and H. Walther, Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 2851 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Poppe, A.

Saeed, M.

H. Helm, N. Bjerre, M. J. Dyer, D. L. Huestis, and M. Saeed, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 3221 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Salières, P.

A. L’Huillier, M. Lewenstein, P. Salières, Ph. Balcou, M. Yu. Ivanov, J. Larsson, and C. G. Wahlström, Phys. Rev. A 48, R3433 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Sartania, S.

Schnürer, M.

F. Krausz, T. Brabec, M. Schnürer, and Ch. Spielmann, Opt. Photon. News 9(7), 46 (1998); A. de Bohan, Ph. Antoine, D. B. Miloević, and B. Piraux, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 1837 (1998); G. Tempea, M. Geissler, and T. Brabec, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 669 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Shapiro, M.

P. Brumer and M. Shapiro, Chem. Phys. Lett. 126, 541 (1986); Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 43, 257 (1992).

Spielmann, Ch.

Svelto, O.

Szipöcs, R.

Taft, G.

Tempea, G.

Wahlström, C. G.

A. L’Huillier, M. Lewenstein, P. Salières, Ph. Balcou, M. Yu. Ivanov, J. Larsson, and C. G. Wahlström, Phys. Rev. A 48, R3433 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Walther, H.

G. G. Paulus, W. Nicklich, H. Xu, P. Lambopoulos, and H. Walther, Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 2851 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, H.

G. G. Paulus, W. Nicklich, H. Xu, P. Lambopoulos, and H. Walther, Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 2851 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, L.

Zhou, J.

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

P. Brumer and M. Shapiro, Chem. Phys. Lett. 126, 541 (1986); Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 43, 257 (1992).

Eur. Phys. J. D (1)

E. Cormier and P. Lambropoulos, Eur. Phys. J. D 2, 15 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (5)

Opt. Photon. News (1)

F. Krausz, T. Brabec, M. Schnürer, and Ch. Spielmann, Opt. Photon. News 9(7), 46 (1998); A. de Bohan, Ph. Antoine, D. B. Miloević, and B. Piraux, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 1837 (1998); G. Tempea, M. Geissler, and T. Brabec, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 669 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (3)

P. Dietrich, N. H. Burnett, M. Yu. Ivanov, and P. B. Corkum, Phys. Rev. A 50, R3585 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Lewenstein, Ph. Balcou, M. Yu. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L’Huillier, M. Lewenstein, P. Salières, Ph. Balcou, M. Yu. Ivanov, J. Larsson, and C. G. Wahlström, Phys. Rev. A 48, R3433 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

H. Helm, N. Bjerre, M. J. Dyer, D. L. Huestis, and M. Saeed, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 3221 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. G. Paulus, W. Nicklich, H. Xu, P. Lambopoulos, and H. Walther, Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 2851 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. B. Corkum, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sov. Phys. JETP (1)

M. V. Ammosov, N. B. Delone, and V. Kraĭnov, Sov. Phys. JETP 64, 1191 (1986).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Angular electron distribution for tunnel ionization of He with circularly polarized light at 800 nm with 4.8-fs duration. The absolute phase ϕ was set to 0. The distribution peaks in the direction 270°=ˆ-90°. Inset, the time-dependent electric field vector rotating around the direction of propagation. Changing the absolute phase of the pulse will rotate the electric field so the direction at t=0 is changed.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Direction (right-hand axis) and (b) contrast of the angular electron distribution as a function of the peak electric field for strong-field ionization of He by circularly polarized light (800 nm, 4.8 fs). The ionization probability is given in (a), left axis, without spatial integration. Solid curves, no spatial integration; dashed curves, radial integration; dotted curves, full spatial integration.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Contrast of the angular electron distribution as a function of pulse duration calculated for a constant ionization yield of He 10-3.

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