Abstract

Single terrylene molecules embedded in microscopic <i>p</i>-terphenyl crystals are identified with the technique of fluorescence excitation spectroscopy. By use of the architecture of a scanning-probe microscope at <i>T</i> = 1.4 K , a single molecule is scanned through an excitation laser beam while the fluorescence signal is recorded. In this manner we have mapped the intensity distribution in a one-dimensional optical standing wave, demonstrating the potential of a single molecule as a nanometric probe. We discuss future experiments aimed at combining the high spatial and spectral sensitivity of a single molecule.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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  1. K. An, J. J. Childs, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3375 (1994).
  2. R. J. Thompson, G. Rempe, and H. J. Kimble, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 1132 (1992).
  3. W. E. Moerner and L. Kador, Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 2535 (1989).
  4. M. Orrit and J. Bernard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 2716 (1990).
  5. See, for example, T. Basché, W. E. Moerner, M. Orrit, and U. P. Wild, Single Molecule Optical Detection, Imaging and Spectroscopy (VCH, Deerfield Beach, Fla., 1997).
  6. E. Betzig and R. J. Chichester, Science 262, 1422 (1993).
  7. T. Basché, W. E. Moerner, M. Orrit, and H. Talon, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 1516 (1992).
  8. S. Kummer, T. Basché, and C. Bräuchle, Chem. Phys. Lett. 229, 309 (1994).
  9. M. Bingelli, G. Kotrotsios, R. Christoph, H. E. Hindermann, T. Berghaus, and P. Güthner, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 2888 (1991).
  10. W. P. Ambrose and W. E. Moerner, Nature (London) 349, 225 (1991).
  11. K. Karrai and R. D. Grober, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1842 (1995).
  12. A. M. van Oijen, J. Köhler, J. Schmidt, M. Müller, and G. J. Brakenhoff, Chem. Phys. Lett. 292, 183 (1998).
  13. L. Fleury, A. Gruber, A. Dräbenstedt, J. Wrachtrup, and C. von Borczyskowski, J. Phys. Chem. B 101, 7933 (1997).
  14. R. Kopelman and W. Tan, Science 262, 1382 (1993).
  15. S. K. Sekatskii and V. S. Letokhov, Appl. Phys. B 63, 525 (1996).
  16. C. Henkel and V. Sandoghdar, Opt. Commun. 158, 250 (1998).

1998

A. M. van Oijen, J. Köhler, J. Schmidt, M. Müller, and G. J. Brakenhoff, Chem. Phys. Lett. 292, 183 (1998).

C. Henkel and V. Sandoghdar, Opt. Commun. 158, 250 (1998).

1997

L. Fleury, A. Gruber, A. Dräbenstedt, J. Wrachtrup, and C. von Borczyskowski, J. Phys. Chem. B 101, 7933 (1997).

1996

S. K. Sekatskii and V. S. Letokhov, Appl. Phys. B 63, 525 (1996).

1995

K. Karrai and R. D. Grober, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1842 (1995).

1994

S. Kummer, T. Basché, and C. Bräuchle, Chem. Phys. Lett. 229, 309 (1994).

K. An, J. J. Childs, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3375 (1994).

1993

E. Betzig and R. J. Chichester, Science 262, 1422 (1993).

R. Kopelman and W. Tan, Science 262, 1382 (1993).

1992

T. Basché, W. E. Moerner, M. Orrit, and H. Talon, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 1516 (1992).

R. J. Thompson, G. Rempe, and H. J. Kimble, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 1132 (1992).

1991

M. Bingelli, G. Kotrotsios, R. Christoph, H. E. Hindermann, T. Berghaus, and P. Güthner, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 2888 (1991).

W. P. Ambrose and W. E. Moerner, Nature (London) 349, 225 (1991).

1990

M. Orrit and J. Bernard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 2716 (1990).

1989

W. E. Moerner and L. Kador, Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 2535 (1989).

Ambrose, W. P.

W. P. Ambrose and W. E. Moerner, Nature (London) 349, 225 (1991).

An, K.

K. An, J. J. Childs, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3375 (1994).

Basché, T.

S. Kummer, T. Basché, and C. Bräuchle, Chem. Phys. Lett. 229, 309 (1994).

T. Basché, W. E. Moerner, M. Orrit, and H. Talon, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 1516 (1992).

See, for example, T. Basché, W. E. Moerner, M. Orrit, and U. P. Wild, Single Molecule Optical Detection, Imaging and Spectroscopy (VCH, Deerfield Beach, Fla., 1997).

Berghaus, T.

M. Bingelli, G. Kotrotsios, R. Christoph, H. E. Hindermann, T. Berghaus, and P. Güthner, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 2888 (1991).

Bernard, J.

M. Orrit and J. Bernard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 2716 (1990).

Betzig, E.

E. Betzig and R. J. Chichester, Science 262, 1422 (1993).

Bingelli, M.

M. Bingelli, G. Kotrotsios, R. Christoph, H. E. Hindermann, T. Berghaus, and P. Güthner, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 2888 (1991).

Brakenhoff, G. J.

A. M. van Oijen, J. Köhler, J. Schmidt, M. Müller, and G. J. Brakenhoff, Chem. Phys. Lett. 292, 183 (1998).

Bräuchle, C.

S. Kummer, T. Basché, and C. Bräuchle, Chem. Phys. Lett. 229, 309 (1994).

Chichester, R. J.

E. Betzig and R. J. Chichester, Science 262, 1422 (1993).

Childs, J. J.

K. An, J. J. Childs, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3375 (1994).

Christoph, R.

M. Bingelli, G. Kotrotsios, R. Christoph, H. E. Hindermann, T. Berghaus, and P. Güthner, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 2888 (1991).

Dasari, R. R.

K. An, J. J. Childs, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3375 (1994).

Dräbenstedt, A.

L. Fleury, A. Gruber, A. Dräbenstedt, J. Wrachtrup, and C. von Borczyskowski, J. Phys. Chem. B 101, 7933 (1997).

Feld, M. S.

K. An, J. J. Childs, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3375 (1994).

Fleury, L.

L. Fleury, A. Gruber, A. Dräbenstedt, J. Wrachtrup, and C. von Borczyskowski, J. Phys. Chem. B 101, 7933 (1997).

Grober, R. D.

K. Karrai and R. D. Grober, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1842 (1995).

Gruber, A.

L. Fleury, A. Gruber, A. Dräbenstedt, J. Wrachtrup, and C. von Borczyskowski, J. Phys. Chem. B 101, 7933 (1997).

Güthner, P.

M. Bingelli, G. Kotrotsios, R. Christoph, H. E. Hindermann, T. Berghaus, and P. Güthner, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 2888 (1991).

Henkel, C.

C. Henkel and V. Sandoghdar, Opt. Commun. 158, 250 (1998).

Hindermann, H. E.

M. Bingelli, G. Kotrotsios, R. Christoph, H. E. Hindermann, T. Berghaus, and P. Güthner, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 2888 (1991).

Kador, L.

W. E. Moerner and L. Kador, Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 2535 (1989).

Karrai, K.

K. Karrai and R. D. Grober, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1842 (1995).

Kimble, H. J.

R. J. Thompson, G. Rempe, and H. J. Kimble, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 1132 (1992).

Köhler, J.

A. M. van Oijen, J. Köhler, J. Schmidt, M. Müller, and G. J. Brakenhoff, Chem. Phys. Lett. 292, 183 (1998).

Kopelman, R.

R. Kopelman and W. Tan, Science 262, 1382 (1993).

Kotrotsios, G.

M. Bingelli, G. Kotrotsios, R. Christoph, H. E. Hindermann, T. Berghaus, and P. Güthner, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 2888 (1991).

Kummer, S.

S. Kummer, T. Basché, and C. Bräuchle, Chem. Phys. Lett. 229, 309 (1994).

Letokhov, V. S.

S. K. Sekatskii and V. S. Letokhov, Appl. Phys. B 63, 525 (1996).

Moerner, W. E.

T. Basché, W. E. Moerner, M. Orrit, and H. Talon, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 1516 (1992).

W. P. Ambrose and W. E. Moerner, Nature (London) 349, 225 (1991).

W. E. Moerner and L. Kador, Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 2535 (1989).

See, for example, T. Basché, W. E. Moerner, M. Orrit, and U. P. Wild, Single Molecule Optical Detection, Imaging and Spectroscopy (VCH, Deerfield Beach, Fla., 1997).

Müller, M.

A. M. van Oijen, J. Köhler, J. Schmidt, M. Müller, and G. J. Brakenhoff, Chem. Phys. Lett. 292, 183 (1998).

Orrit, M.

T. Basché, W. E. Moerner, M. Orrit, and H. Talon, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 1516 (1992).

M. Orrit and J. Bernard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 2716 (1990).

See, for example, T. Basché, W. E. Moerner, M. Orrit, and U. P. Wild, Single Molecule Optical Detection, Imaging and Spectroscopy (VCH, Deerfield Beach, Fla., 1997).

Rempe, G.

R. J. Thompson, G. Rempe, and H. J. Kimble, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 1132 (1992).

Sandoghdar, V.

C. Henkel and V. Sandoghdar, Opt. Commun. 158, 250 (1998).

Schmidt, J.

A. M. van Oijen, J. Köhler, J. Schmidt, M. Müller, and G. J. Brakenhoff, Chem. Phys. Lett. 292, 183 (1998).

Sekatskii, S. K.

S. K. Sekatskii and V. S. Letokhov, Appl. Phys. B 63, 525 (1996).

Talon, H.

T. Basché, W. E. Moerner, M. Orrit, and H. Talon, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 1516 (1992).

Tan, W.

R. Kopelman and W. Tan, Science 262, 1382 (1993).

Thompson, R. J.

R. J. Thompson, G. Rempe, and H. J. Kimble, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 1132 (1992).

van Oijen, A. M.

A. M. van Oijen, J. Köhler, J. Schmidt, M. Müller, and G. J. Brakenhoff, Chem. Phys. Lett. 292, 183 (1998).

von Borczyskowski, C.

L. Fleury, A. Gruber, A. Dräbenstedt, J. Wrachtrup, and C. von Borczyskowski, J. Phys. Chem. B 101, 7933 (1997).

Wild, U. P.

See, for example, T. Basché, W. E. Moerner, M. Orrit, and U. P. Wild, Single Molecule Optical Detection, Imaging and Spectroscopy (VCH, Deerfield Beach, Fla., 1997).

Wrachtrup, J.

L. Fleury, A. Gruber, A. Dräbenstedt, J. Wrachtrup, and C. von Borczyskowski, J. Phys. Chem. B 101, 7933 (1997).

Appl. Phys. B

S. K. Sekatskii and V. S. Letokhov, Appl. Phys. B 63, 525 (1996).

Appl. Phys. Lett.

K. Karrai and R. D. Grober, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1842 (1995).

Chem. Phys. Lett.

A. M. van Oijen, J. Köhler, J. Schmidt, M. Müller, and G. J. Brakenhoff, Chem. Phys. Lett. 292, 183 (1998).

S. Kummer, T. Basché, and C. Bräuchle, Chem. Phys. Lett. 229, 309 (1994).

J. Phys. Chem. B

L. Fleury, A. Gruber, A. Dräbenstedt, J. Wrachtrup, and C. von Borczyskowski, J. Phys. Chem. B 101, 7933 (1997).

Nature (London)

W. P. Ambrose and W. E. Moerner, Nature (London) 349, 225 (1991).

Opt. Commun.

C. Henkel and V. Sandoghdar, Opt. Commun. 158, 250 (1998).

Phys. Rev. Lett.

T. Basché, W. E. Moerner, M. Orrit, and H. Talon, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 1516 (1992).

K. An, J. J. Childs, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3375 (1994).

R. J. Thompson, G. Rempe, and H. J. Kimble, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 1132 (1992).

W. E. Moerner and L. Kador, Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 2535 (1989).

M. Orrit and J. Bernard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 2716 (1990).

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

M. Bingelli, G. Kotrotsios, R. Christoph, H. E. Hindermann, T. Berghaus, and P. Güthner, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 2888 (1991).

Science

E. Betzig and R. J. Chichester, Science 262, 1422 (1993).

R. Kopelman and W. Tan, Science 262, 1382 (1993).

Other

See, for example, T. Basché, W. E. Moerner, M. Orrit, and U. P. Wild, Single Molecule Optical Detection, Imaging and Spectroscopy (VCH, Deerfield Beach, Fla., 1997).

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