Abstract

We present difference-frequency generation cross-correlation frequency-resolved optical gating, a new method of characterizing the amplitude and phase of weak ultrashort pulses in the blue spectral region. The method uses the spectrally resolved downconversion signal of the blue pulse and a fully characterized reference pulse with a lower center frequency. The amplitude and phase of the blue test pulse are retrieved from the corresponding spectrogram and electric field of the reference pulse with an interactive Fourier-transform algorithm.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbügel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. J. Taylor, G. Rodriguez, and T. S. Clement, Opt. Lett. 21, 1812 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. B. Koehler, V. V. Yakovlev, K. R. Wilson, J. Squier, K. W. DeLong, and R. Trebino, Opt. Lett. 20, 483 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. M. Dudley, L. P. Barry, P. G. Bollond, J. D. Harvey, R. Leonhardt, and P. D. Drummond, Opt. Lett. 22, 457 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. K. W. DeLong, R. Trebino, J. Hunter, and W. E. White, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 2206 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. Linden, H. Giessen, and J. Kuhl, Phys. Status Solidi B 206, 119 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  7. D. N. Fittinghoff, J. L. Bowie, J. N. Sweetser, R. T. Jennings, M. A. Krumbügel, K. W. DeLong, R. Trebino, and I. A. Walmsley, Opt. Lett. 21, 884 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. T. Tsang, M. A. Krumbügel, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, and R. Trebino, Opt. Lett. 21, 1381 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. Polarization gate FROG is not considered here because of its need for relatively high pulse energies.
  10. We use the definition according to Ref.??11, assuming the two input beams having perpendicular linear polarization.
  11. R. L. Sutherland, Handbook of Nonlinear Optics (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1996).
  12. K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, R. Trebino, B. Kohler, and K. Wilson, Opt. Lett. 19, 2153 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  13. R. Trebino and D. J. Kane, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 1101 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  14. K. W. DeLong, R. Trebino, and W. E. White, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 2463 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  15. A. W. Weiner, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 1276 (1984).
  16. A commercial version of our XFROG and DFG XFROG has meanwhile been included in the FROG package from Femtosoft Technologies (fsoft@wco.com).

1998 (1)

S. Linden, H. Giessen, and J. Kuhl, Phys. Status Solidi B 206, 119 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbügel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Dudley, L. P. Barry, P. G. Bollond, J. D. Harvey, R. Leonhardt, and P. D. Drummond, Opt. Lett. 22, 457 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (3)

1995 (2)

1994 (2)

K. W. DeLong, R. Trebino, J. Hunter, and W. E. White, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 2206 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, R. Trebino, B. Kohler, and K. Wilson, Opt. Lett. 19, 2153 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

1984 (1)

A. W. Weiner, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 1276 (1984).

Barry, L. P.

Bollond, P. G.

Bowie, J. L.

Clement, T. S.

DeLong, K. W.

Drummond, P. D.

Dudley, J. M.

Fittinghoff, D. N.

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbügel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. Tsang, M. A. Krumbügel, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, and R. Trebino, Opt. Lett. 21, 1381 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. N. Fittinghoff, J. L. Bowie, J. N. Sweetser, R. T. Jennings, M. A. Krumbügel, K. W. DeLong, R. Trebino, and I. A. Walmsley, Opt. Lett. 21, 884 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, R. Trebino, B. Kohler, and K. Wilson, Opt. Lett. 19, 2153 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Giessen, H.

S. Linden, H. Giessen, and J. Kuhl, Phys. Status Solidi B 206, 119 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Harvey, J. D.

Hunter, J.

Jennings, R. T.

Kane, D. J.

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbügel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Trebino and D. J. Kane, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 1101 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Koehler, B.

Kohler, B.

K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, R. Trebino, B. Kohler, and K. Wilson, Opt. Lett. 19, 2153 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Krumbügel, M. A.

Kuhl, J.

S. Linden, H. Giessen, and J. Kuhl, Phys. Status Solidi B 206, 119 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Leonhardt, R.

Linden, S.

S. Linden, H. Giessen, and J. Kuhl, Phys. Status Solidi B 206, 119 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Richman, B. A.

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbügel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rodriguez, G.

Squier, J.

Sutherland, R. L.

R. L. Sutherland, Handbook of Nonlinear Optics (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1996).

Sweetser, J. N.

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbügel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. N. Fittinghoff, J. L. Bowie, J. N. Sweetser, R. T. Jennings, M. A. Krumbügel, K. W. DeLong, R. Trebino, and I. A. Walmsley, Opt. Lett. 21, 884 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taylor, A. J.

Trebino, R.

Tsang, T.

Walmsley, I. A.

Weiner, A. W.

A. W. Weiner, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 1276 (1984).

White, W. E.

Wilson, K.

K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, R. Trebino, B. Kohler, and K. Wilson, Opt. Lett. 19, 2153 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, K. R.

Yakovlev, V. V.

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

A. W. Weiner, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 1276 (1984).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Opt. Lett. (6)

Phys. Status Solidi B (1)

S. Linden, H. Giessen, and J. Kuhl, Phys. Status Solidi B 206, 119 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbügel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

A commercial version of our XFROG and DFG XFROG has meanwhile been included in the FROG package from Femtosoft Technologies (fsoft@wco.com).

Polarization gate FROG is not considered here because of its need for relatively high pulse energies.

We use the definition according to Ref.??11, assuming the two input beams having perpendicular linear polarization.

R. L. Sutherland, Handbook of Nonlinear Optics (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1996).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Experimental setup for DFG XFROG measurements: BS, beam splitter. (b) Schematic of the DFG XFROG algorithm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimentally measured DFG XFROG trace of a blue pulse that was created by SHG of a pulse from a Ti:sapphire oscillator. The fundamental pulse was used as the reference pulse. The DFG XFROG trace is shown as a density plot with ten equidistant steps from zero intensity (white) to maximum intensity (black).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Intensity (, unchirped pulse; , intentionally chirped pulse) and phase (, unchirped pulse; , intentionally chirped pulse) as a function of time of the retrieved blue test pulses. (b) Experimentally measured and calculated (, unchirped pulse; , intentionally chirped pulse) spectra of the blue test pulse.

Equations (3)

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ESigETesttERef*t-τ,
IXFROGω,τ-dtETesttERef*t-τexpiωt2.
Z=i,j=1NESigti,τj-ETesttiERef*ti-τj2

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