Abstract

We built a polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomographic system and measured the two-dimensional depth-resolved full 4×4 Mueller matrix of biological tissue for what is believed to be the first time. The Mueller matrix measurements, which we made by varying the polarization states of the light source and the detector, yielded a complete characterization of the polarization property of the tissue sample. The initial experimental results indicated that this new approach reveals some tissue structures that are not perceptible in standard optical coherence tomography.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  3. A. Rollins, S. Yazdanfar, M. Kulkarni, R. Ung-arunyawee, and J. Izatt, Opt. Exp. 3, 219 (1998), www.osa.org .
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  5. J. F. de Boer, T. E. Milner, M. J. C. van Gemert, and J. S. Nelson, Opt. Lett. 22, 934 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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1998 (3)

1997 (1)

1995 (1)

1993 (1)

X. Clivaz, F. Marquis-Weible, and R. P. Salathé, Proc. SPIE 2083, 338 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987 (1)

J. J. Gil and E. Bernabeu, Optik 76, 67 (1987).

1985 (1)

W. S. Bickel and W. M. Bailey, Am. J. Phys. 53, 468 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Bailey, W. M.

W. S. Bickel and W. M. Bailey, Am. J. Phys. 53, 468 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Bernabeu, E.

J. J. Gil and E. Bernabeu, Optik 76, 67 (1987).

Bickel, W. S.

W. S. Bickel and W. M. Bailey, Am. J. Phys. 53, 468 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Birngruber, R.

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clivaz, X.

X. Clivaz, F. Marquis-Weible, and R. P. Salathé, Proc. SPIE 2083, 338 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Colston, B. W.

Da Silva, L. B.

de Boer, J. F.

Engelhardt, R.

Everett, M. J.

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gil, J. J.

J. J. Gil and E. Bernabeu, Optik 76, 67 (1987).

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hee, M. R.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Izatt, J.

A. Rollins, S. Yazdanfar, M. Kulkarni, R. Ung-arunyawee, and J. Izatt, Opt. Exp. 3, 219 (1998), www.osa.org .
[CrossRef]

Kulkarni, M.

A. Rollins, S. Yazdanfar, M. Kulkarni, R. Ung-arunyawee, and J. Izatt, Opt. Exp. 3, 219 (1998), www.osa.org .
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marquis-Weible, F.

X. Clivaz, F. Marquis-Weible, and R. P. Salathé, Proc. SPIE 2083, 338 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Milner, T. E.

Nelson, J. S.

Pan, Y.

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rollins, A.

A. Rollins, S. Yazdanfar, M. Kulkarni, R. Ung-arunyawee, and J. Izatt, Opt. Exp. 3, 219 (1998), www.osa.org .
[CrossRef]

Rosperich, J.

Salathé, R. P.

X. Clivaz, F. Marquis-Weible, and R. P. Salathé, Proc. SPIE 2083, 338 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Schmitt, J. M.

Schoenenberger, K.

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swanson, E. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ung-arunyawee, R.

A. Rollins, S. Yazdanfar, M. Kulkarni, R. Ung-arunyawee, and J. Izatt, Opt. Exp. 3, 219 (1998), www.osa.org .
[CrossRef]

van Gemert, M. J. C.

Xiang, S. H.

Yazdanfar, S.

A. Rollins, S. Yazdanfar, M. Kulkarni, R. Ung-arunyawee, and J. Izatt, Opt. Exp. 3, 219 (1998), www.osa.org .
[CrossRef]

Am. J. Phys. (1)

W. S. Bickel and W. M. Bailey, Am. J. Phys. 53, 468 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Opt. Exp. (1)

A. Rollins, S. Yazdanfar, M. Kulkarni, R. Ung-arunyawee, and J. Izatt, Opt. Exp. 3, 219 (1998), www.osa.org .
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Optik (1)

J. J. Gil and E. Bernabeu, Optik 76, 67 (1987).

Proc. SPIE (1)

X. Clivaz, F. Marquis-Weible, and R. P. Salathé, Proc. SPIE 2083, 338 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the polarization-sensitive OCT system: SLD, superluminescent diode; P, polarizer; HW, zero-order half-wave plate; QW, zero-order quarter-wave plate; NBS, nonpolarization beam splitter; VW, variable-wave plate; M, mirror; L1, L2, lenses; PD, photodiode; S, sample.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Raw OCT images with normalized intensity. All the images share the same color map. The size of each image is 750 μm×500 μm. The bottom boundary in each image represents the incident surface of the bone sample. (b) Mueller matrix images. The Mueller matrix images (except M00) are normalized to M00 and share the same color map.

Equations (3)

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Ioct=2 ReEsls·Er,A*lr=2Is,AlsIr,Alr1/2VΔlcosk0Δl,
Is,AIoct2/Ir,A.
[HH+HV+VH+VVHH+HV-VH-VV2PH+2PV-M002RH+2RV-M00HH-HV+VH-VVHH-HV-VH+VV2PH-2PV-M102RH-2RV-M102HP+2VP-M002HP-2VP-M014PP-2PH-2PV-M204RP-2RH-2RV-M202HR+2VR-M002HR-2VR-M014PR-2PH-2PV-M304RR-2RH-2RV-M30],

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