Abstract

A novel integrated optical chemical sensor based on a surface-relief Bragg grating in a waveguide with a curved input edge, and coated with a chemically sensitive polysiloxane cladding, is described. The curved edge provides a mechanism within the device fabrication that allows for alignment of the input beam to the grating to achieve Bragg scattering. As proof of principle, a low-parts-in-106 toluene-vapor sensor with a fast response time is demonstrated.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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  1. N. Fabricius, G. Gauglitz, and J. Ingenhoff, Sens. Actuators B 7, 672 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  2. Th. Schubert, N. Haase, H. Kück, and R. Gottfried-Gottfried, Sens. Actuators B 60, 108 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  3. R. E. Kunz, J. Edlinger, B. J. Curtis, M. T. Gale, L. U. Kempen, H. Rudigier, and H. Schütz, Proc. SPIE 2068, 313 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  4. W. Lukosz, Sens. Actuators B 29, 37 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  5. L. A. Weller-Brophy and D. G. Hall, J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1069 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Li, J. C. H. Lin, M. J. Cherrill, and S. J. Sheard, Electron. Lett. 30, 2126 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. W. Grate and M. H. Abraham, Sens. Actuators B 3, 85 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  8. K. D. Schierbaum, A. Hierlemann, and W. Gopel, Sens. Actuators B 19, 448 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  9. N. Barié, M. Rapp, and H. J. Ache, Sens. Actuators B 46, 97 (1998).
    [CrossRef]

1998

N. Barié, M. Rapp, and H. J. Ache, Sens. Actuators B 46, 97 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

Th. Schubert, N. Haase, H. Kück, and R. Gottfried-Gottfried, Sens. Actuators B 60, 108 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995

W. Lukosz, Sens. Actuators B 29, 37 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

M. Li, J. C. H. Lin, M. J. Cherrill, and S. J. Sheard, Electron. Lett. 30, 2126 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Schierbaum, A. Hierlemann, and W. Gopel, Sens. Actuators B 19, 448 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

R. E. Kunz, J. Edlinger, B. J. Curtis, M. T. Gale, L. U. Kempen, H. Rudigier, and H. Schütz, Proc. SPIE 2068, 313 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992

N. Fabricius, G. Gauglitz, and J. Ingenhoff, Sens. Actuators B 7, 672 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991

J. W. Grate and M. H. Abraham, Sens. Actuators B 3, 85 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1988

L. A. Weller-Brophy and D. G. Hall, J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1069 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Abraham, M. H.

J. W. Grate and M. H. Abraham, Sens. Actuators B 3, 85 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Ache, H. J.

N. Barié, M. Rapp, and H. J. Ache, Sens. Actuators B 46, 97 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Barié, N.

N. Barié, M. Rapp, and H. J. Ache, Sens. Actuators B 46, 97 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cherrill, M. J.

M. Li, J. C. H. Lin, M. J. Cherrill, and S. J. Sheard, Electron. Lett. 30, 2126 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Curtis, B. J.

R. E. Kunz, J. Edlinger, B. J. Curtis, M. T. Gale, L. U. Kempen, H. Rudigier, and H. Schütz, Proc. SPIE 2068, 313 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Edlinger, J.

R. E. Kunz, J. Edlinger, B. J. Curtis, M. T. Gale, L. U. Kempen, H. Rudigier, and H. Schütz, Proc. SPIE 2068, 313 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Fabricius, N.

N. Fabricius, G. Gauglitz, and J. Ingenhoff, Sens. Actuators B 7, 672 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Gale, M. T.

R. E. Kunz, J. Edlinger, B. J. Curtis, M. T. Gale, L. U. Kempen, H. Rudigier, and H. Schütz, Proc. SPIE 2068, 313 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Gauglitz, G.

N. Fabricius, G. Gauglitz, and J. Ingenhoff, Sens. Actuators B 7, 672 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Gopel, W.

K. D. Schierbaum, A. Hierlemann, and W. Gopel, Sens. Actuators B 19, 448 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Gottfried-Gottfried, R.

Th. Schubert, N. Haase, H. Kück, and R. Gottfried-Gottfried, Sens. Actuators B 60, 108 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Grate, J. W.

J. W. Grate and M. H. Abraham, Sens. Actuators B 3, 85 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Haase, N.

Th. Schubert, N. Haase, H. Kück, and R. Gottfried-Gottfried, Sens. Actuators B 60, 108 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hall, D. G.

L. A. Weller-Brophy and D. G. Hall, J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1069 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Hierlemann, A.

K. D. Schierbaum, A. Hierlemann, and W. Gopel, Sens. Actuators B 19, 448 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ingenhoff, J.

N. Fabricius, G. Gauglitz, and J. Ingenhoff, Sens. Actuators B 7, 672 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kempen, L. U.

R. E. Kunz, J. Edlinger, B. J. Curtis, M. T. Gale, L. U. Kempen, H. Rudigier, and H. Schütz, Proc. SPIE 2068, 313 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kück, H.

Th. Schubert, N. Haase, H. Kück, and R. Gottfried-Gottfried, Sens. Actuators B 60, 108 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kunz, R. E.

R. E. Kunz, J. Edlinger, B. J. Curtis, M. T. Gale, L. U. Kempen, H. Rudigier, and H. Schütz, Proc. SPIE 2068, 313 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Li, M.

M. Li, J. C. H. Lin, M. J. Cherrill, and S. J. Sheard, Electron. Lett. 30, 2126 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lin, J. C. H.

M. Li, J. C. H. Lin, M. J. Cherrill, and S. J. Sheard, Electron. Lett. 30, 2126 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lukosz, W.

W. Lukosz, Sens. Actuators B 29, 37 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Rapp, M.

N. Barié, M. Rapp, and H. J. Ache, Sens. Actuators B 46, 97 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rudigier, H.

R. E. Kunz, J. Edlinger, B. J. Curtis, M. T. Gale, L. U. Kempen, H. Rudigier, and H. Schütz, Proc. SPIE 2068, 313 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Schierbaum, K. D.

K. D. Schierbaum, A. Hierlemann, and W. Gopel, Sens. Actuators B 19, 448 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, Th.

Th. Schubert, N. Haase, H. Kück, and R. Gottfried-Gottfried, Sens. Actuators B 60, 108 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Schütz, H.

R. E. Kunz, J. Edlinger, B. J. Curtis, M. T. Gale, L. U. Kempen, H. Rudigier, and H. Schütz, Proc. SPIE 2068, 313 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Sheard, S. J.

M. Li, J. C. H. Lin, M. J. Cherrill, and S. J. Sheard, Electron. Lett. 30, 2126 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Weller-Brophy, L. A.

L. A. Weller-Brophy and D. G. Hall, J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1069 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

M. Li, J. C. H. Lin, M. J. Cherrill, and S. J. Sheard, Electron. Lett. 30, 2126 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

L. A. Weller-Brophy and D. G. Hall, J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1069 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

R. E. Kunz, J. Edlinger, B. J. Curtis, M. T. Gale, L. U. Kempen, H. Rudigier, and H. Schütz, Proc. SPIE 2068, 313 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators B

W. Lukosz, Sens. Actuators B 29, 37 (1995).
[CrossRef]

N. Fabricius, G. Gauglitz, and J. Ingenhoff, Sens. Actuators B 7, 672 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Th. Schubert, N. Haase, H. Kück, and R. Gottfried-Gottfried, Sens. Actuators B 60, 108 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Grate and M. H. Abraham, Sens. Actuators B 3, 85 (1991).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Schierbaum, A. Hierlemann, and W. Gopel, Sens. Actuators B 19, 448 (1994).
[CrossRef]

N. Barié, M. Rapp, and H. J. Ache, Sens. Actuators B 46, 97 (1998).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Illustration of a Bragg waveguide sensor, comprising 1, a waveguiding layer; 2, a waveguide substrate; 3, a polished input edge shaped into a curve; 4, input and output fibers; 5, an etched surface-relief grating; 6, an adsorbing polymer cladding superstrate; 7, a diverging input beam; and 8, a Bragg scattered output beam.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Top view of the waveguide sensor, showing 3, the curved waveguide edge; 4, the input fiber; and 5, the Bragg scattering grating.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Response of the waveguide sensor to 100 ppm of toluene in nitrogen.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Intensity change with toluene concentration in the 0–100-ppm range. The line is a guide to the eye only.

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