Abstract

The use of two-level phase masks or spatial light modulators in confocal imaging systems is considered. It is shown how, although such masks can modify or correct the effective point-spread function of a system, their behavior for planar objects may not be as desired as a result of phase-wrapping effects. Overcoming this problem with a multilevel mask or a pair of two-level masks is discussed.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef]
  2. Z. Hegedus and V. Safaris, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 3, 1892 (1986).
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    [CrossRef]
  4. C. J. R. Sheppard, Optik 99, 32 (1995).
  5. M. Martinez-Corral, P. Andrés, C. J. Zapata-Rodriguez, and C. J. R. Sheppard, Optik 107, 145 (1998).
  6. Z. Ding, G. Wang, M. Gu, Z. Wang, and Z. Fan, Appl. Opt. 36, 360 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  10. T. R. M. Sales and G. M. Morris, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 1637 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. Glückstad, Y. Kawata, O. Nakamura, and S. Kawata, in Non-Astronomical Adaptive Optics, Vol. 13 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), p. 10.
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  16. C. J. R. Sheppard and A. Choudhury, Opt. Acta 24, 1051 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  19. T. Ode, in Proceedings of the Ninth Meeting of the Japan Society for Laser Microscopy, (Japan Society for Laser Microscopy, Kyoto, Japan, 1992), pp. 4–7.

1998 (2)

M. Martinez-Corral, P. Andrés, C. J. Zapata-Rodriguez, and C. J. R. Sheppard, Optik 107, 145 (1998).

M. Kowalczyk, C. J. Zapata-Rodriguez, and M. Martinez-Corral, Appl. Opt. 367, 8206 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (4)

S. Sinzinger, V. Arrizón, and J. Jahns, Proc. SPIE 3002, 186 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Birch, J. D. Gourley, N. P. Doble, and A. Purvis, Proc. SPIE 3126, 185 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. R. M. Sales and G. M. Morris, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 1637 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Z. Ding, G. Wang, M. Gu, Z. Wang, and Z. Fan, Appl. Opt. 36, 360 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (2)

C. J. R. Sheppard, Optik 99, 32 (1995).

H. Sato, Proc. SPIE 2647, 110 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

C. K. Sieracki and E. W. Hansen, Proc. SPIE 2184, 120 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

M. Gu and C. J. R. Sheppard, Opt. Commun. 100, 79 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (2)

J. W. O’Byrne and C. J. Cogswell, Proc. SPIE 1660, 512 (1992).
[CrossRef]

C. J. R. Sheppard and M. Gu, J. Microsc. 165, 377 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (2)

C. J. R. Sheppard, M. Gu, and X. Q. Mao, Opt. Commun. 81, 281 (1991).
[CrossRef]

T. Tatebayashi, T. Yamamoto, and H. Sato, Appl. Opt. 30, 5049 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986 (1)

1985 (1)

Z. S. Hegedus, Opt. Acta 32, 815 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

C. J. R. Sheppard and A. Choudhury, Opt. Acta 24, 1051 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Andrés, P.

M. Martinez-Corral, P. Andrés, C. J. Zapata-Rodriguez, and C. J. R. Sheppard, Optik 107, 145 (1998).

Arrizón, V.

S. Sinzinger, V. Arrizón, and J. Jahns, Proc. SPIE 3002, 186 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Birch, P. M.

P. M. Birch, J. D. Gourley, N. P. Doble, and A. Purvis, Proc. SPIE 3126, 185 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Choudhury, A.

C. J. R. Sheppard and A. Choudhury, Opt. Acta 24, 1051 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Cogswell, C. J.

J. W. O’Byrne and C. J. Cogswell, Proc. SPIE 1660, 512 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ding, Z.

Doble, N. P.

P. M. Birch, J. D. Gourley, N. P. Doble, and A. Purvis, Proc. SPIE 3126, 185 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fan, Z.

Glückstad, J.

J. Glückstad, Y. Kawata, O. Nakamura, and S. Kawata, in Non-Astronomical Adaptive Optics, Vol. 13 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), p. 10.

Gourley, J. D.

P. M. Birch, J. D. Gourley, N. P. Doble, and A. Purvis, Proc. SPIE 3126, 185 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gu, M.

Z. Ding, G. Wang, M. Gu, Z. Wang, and Z. Fan, Appl. Opt. 36, 360 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Gu and C. J. R. Sheppard, Opt. Commun. 100, 79 (1993).
[CrossRef]

C. J. R. Sheppard and M. Gu, J. Microsc. 165, 377 (1992).
[CrossRef]

C. J. R. Sheppard, M. Gu, and X. Q. Mao, Opt. Commun. 81, 281 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hansen, E. W.

C. K. Sieracki and E. W. Hansen, Proc. SPIE 2184, 120 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hegedus, Z.

Hegedus, Z. S.

Z. S. Hegedus, Opt. Acta 32, 815 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Jahns, J.

S. Sinzinger, V. Arrizón, and J. Jahns, Proc. SPIE 3002, 186 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kawata, S.

J. Glückstad, Y. Kawata, O. Nakamura, and S. Kawata, in Non-Astronomical Adaptive Optics, Vol. 13 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), p. 10.

Kawata, Y.

J. Glückstad, Y. Kawata, O. Nakamura, and S. Kawata, in Non-Astronomical Adaptive Optics, Vol. 13 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), p. 10.

Kowalczyk, M.

M. Kowalczyk, C. J. Zapata-Rodriguez, and M. Martinez-Corral, Appl. Opt. 367, 8206 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mao, X. Q.

C. J. R. Sheppard, M. Gu, and X. Q. Mao, Opt. Commun. 81, 281 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Martinez-Corral, M.

M. Martinez-Corral, P. Andrés, C. J. Zapata-Rodriguez, and C. J. R. Sheppard, Optik 107, 145 (1998).

M. Kowalczyk, C. J. Zapata-Rodriguez, and M. Martinez-Corral, Appl. Opt. 367, 8206 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Morris, G. M.

Nakamura, O.

J. Glückstad, Y. Kawata, O. Nakamura, and S. Kawata, in Non-Astronomical Adaptive Optics, Vol. 13 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), p. 10.

O’Byrne, J. W.

J. W. O’Byrne and C. J. Cogswell, Proc. SPIE 1660, 512 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ode, T.

T. Ode, in Proceedings of the Ninth Meeting of the Japan Society for Laser Microscopy, (Japan Society for Laser Microscopy, Kyoto, Japan, 1992), pp. 4–7.

Purvis, A.

P. M. Birch, J. D. Gourley, N. P. Doble, and A. Purvis, Proc. SPIE 3126, 185 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Safaris, V.

Sales, T. R. M.

Sato, H.

Sheppard, C. J. R.

M. Martinez-Corral, P. Andrés, C. J. Zapata-Rodriguez, and C. J. R. Sheppard, Optik 107, 145 (1998).

C. J. R. Sheppard, Optik 99, 32 (1995).

M. Gu and C. J. R. Sheppard, Opt. Commun. 100, 79 (1993).
[CrossRef]

C. J. R. Sheppard and M. Gu, J. Microsc. 165, 377 (1992).
[CrossRef]

C. J. R. Sheppard, M. Gu, and X. Q. Mao, Opt. Commun. 81, 281 (1991).
[CrossRef]

C. J. R. Sheppard and A. Choudhury, Opt. Acta 24, 1051 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Sieracki, C. K.

C. K. Sieracki and E. W. Hansen, Proc. SPIE 2184, 120 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sinzinger, S.

S. Sinzinger, V. Arrizón, and J. Jahns, Proc. SPIE 3002, 186 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tatebayashi, T.

Wang, G.

Wang, Z.

Yamamoto, T.

Zapata-Rodriguez, C. J.

M. Martinez-Corral, P. Andrés, C. J. Zapata-Rodriguez, and C. J. R. Sheppard, Optik 107, 145 (1998).

M. Kowalczyk, C. J. Zapata-Rodriguez, and M. Martinez-Corral, Appl. Opt. 367, 8206 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (3)

J. Microsc. (1)

C. J. R. Sheppard and M. Gu, J. Microsc. 165, 377 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (2)

Opt. Acta (2)

C. J. R. Sheppard and A. Choudhury, Opt. Acta 24, 1051 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Z. S. Hegedus, Opt. Acta 32, 815 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (2)

C. J. R. Sheppard, M. Gu, and X. Q. Mao, Opt. Commun. 81, 281 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. Gu and C. J. R. Sheppard, Opt. Commun. 100, 79 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Optik (2)

C. J. R. Sheppard, Optik 99, 32 (1995).

M. Martinez-Corral, P. Andrés, C. J. Zapata-Rodriguez, and C. J. R. Sheppard, Optik 107, 145 (1998).

Proc. SPIE (5)

S. Sinzinger, V. Arrizón, and J. Jahns, Proc. SPIE 3002, 186 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. W. O’Byrne and C. J. Cogswell, Proc. SPIE 1660, 512 (1992).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Birch, J. D. Gourley, N. P. Doble, and A. Purvis, Proc. SPIE 3126, 185 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. Sato, Proc. SPIE 2647, 110 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. K. Sieracki and E. W. Hansen, Proc. SPIE 2184, 120 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

T. Ode, in Proceedings of the Ninth Meeting of the Japan Society for Laser Microscopy, (Japan Society for Laser Microscopy, Kyoto, Japan, 1992), pp. 4–7.

J. Glückstad, Y. Kawata, O. Nakamura, and S. Kawata, in Non-Astronomical Adaptive Optics, Vol. 13 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), p. 10.

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Figures (1)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagrams of confocal systems with independent illumination and collection pupils: (a) transmission, (b) reflection.

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