Abstract

We demonstrate a directional coupler that employs two waveguides induced by two mutually incoherent photorefractive solitons propagating in parallel at close proximity. Efficient coupling from one waveguide to the other is achieved for probe beams at wavelengths much longer than that of the solitons. We study the mutual coupling as a function of distance between solitons.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. Segev and G. I. Stegeman, Phys. Today 51(8), 42 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. W. Snyder, D. J. Mitchell, L. Polodian, and F. Ladouceur, Opt. Lett. 16, 21 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. R. De La Fuente, A. Barthelemy, and C. Froehly, Opt. Lett. 16, 793 (1991)B. Luther-Davies and Y. Xiaoping, Opt. Lett. 17, 496 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. P. V. Mamyshev, A. Villeneuve, G. I. Stegeman, and J. S. Aitchison, Electron. Lett. 30, 726 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. Morin, G. Duree, G. Salamo, and M. Segev, Opt. Lett. 20, 2066 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. M. Shih, M. Segev, and G. Salamo, Opt. Lett. 21, 931 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. M. Shih, Z. Chen, M. Mitchell, and M. Segev, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 3091 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. Klotz, H. Meng, G. Salamo, M. Segev, and S. R. Montgomery, Opt. Lett. 24, 77 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Note the distinction from incoherent solitons, which are partially spatially incoherent M. Mitchell, Z. Chen, M. Shih, and M. Segev, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 490 (1996)or spatially and temporally incoherent M. Mitchell and M. Segev, Nature (London) 387, 880 (1997) entities.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. M. Shih and M. Segev, Opt. Lett. 21, 1538 (1996)M. Shih, Z. Chen, M. Segev, T. Coskun, and D. N. Christodoulides, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 4151 (1996)M. Shih, M. Segev, and G. Salamo, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2551 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. In isotropic self-focusing media, the force between mutually incoherent solitons is only attractive.?In photorefractive media, an incoherent collision between screening solitons is primarily attractive (and leads to the results shown in Ref.??10), except in the pathologic case when such two-dimensional solitons collide at a shallow angle and when the plane formed by the collision trajectories is parallel to the c axis (direction of the applied field).?In this case one can observe some small anomalous repulsion, as observed by W. Krolikowski, M. Saffman, B. Luther-Davies, and C. Denz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 3240 (1998).?We believe that it is possible to utilize this anomalous interaction to bring two solitons (at those special conditions) to a proximity closer than what we have demonstrated.
    [CrossRef]
  12. Z. Chen, M. Segev, T. Coskun, and D. N. Christodoulides, Opt. Lett. 21, 1436 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. A. Yariv, Optical Electronics in Modern Communications, 5th ed. (Oxford, New York, 1996), Chap. 13.8, pp. 521–525.

1998 (3)

M. Segev and G. I. Stegeman, Phys. Today 51(8), 42 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Klotz, H. Meng, G. Salamo, M. Segev, and S. R. Montgomery, Opt. Lett. 24, 77 (1998).
[CrossRef]

In isotropic self-focusing media, the force between mutually incoherent solitons is only attractive.?In photorefractive media, an incoherent collision between screening solitons is primarily attractive (and leads to the results shown in Ref.??10), except in the pathologic case when such two-dimensional solitons collide at a shallow angle and when the plane formed by the collision trajectories is parallel to the c axis (direction of the applied field).?In this case one can observe some small anomalous repulsion, as observed by W. Krolikowski, M. Saffman, B. Luther-Davies, and C. Denz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 3240 (1998).?We believe that it is possible to utilize this anomalous interaction to bring two solitons (at those special conditions) to a proximity closer than what we have demonstrated.
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1996 (4)

1995 (1)

1994 (1)

P. V. Mamyshev, A. Villeneuve, G. I. Stegeman, and J. S. Aitchison, Electron. Lett. 30, 726 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1991 (2)

Aitchison, J. S.

P. V. Mamyshev, A. Villeneuve, G. I. Stegeman, and J. S. Aitchison, Electron. Lett. 30, 726 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Barthelemy, A.

Chen, Z.

M. Shih, Z. Chen, M. Mitchell, and M. Segev, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 3091 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Note the distinction from incoherent solitons, which are partially spatially incoherent M. Mitchell, Z. Chen, M. Shih, and M. Segev, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 490 (1996)or spatially and temporally incoherent M. Mitchell and M. Segev, Nature (London) 387, 880 (1997) entities.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Chen, M. Segev, T. Coskun, and D. N. Christodoulides, Opt. Lett. 21, 1436 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Christodoulides, D. N.

Coskun, T.

De La Fuente, R.

Denz, C.

In isotropic self-focusing media, the force between mutually incoherent solitons is only attractive.?In photorefractive media, an incoherent collision between screening solitons is primarily attractive (and leads to the results shown in Ref.??10), except in the pathologic case when such two-dimensional solitons collide at a shallow angle and when the plane formed by the collision trajectories is parallel to the c axis (direction of the applied field).?In this case one can observe some small anomalous repulsion, as observed by W. Krolikowski, M. Saffman, B. Luther-Davies, and C. Denz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 3240 (1998).?We believe that it is possible to utilize this anomalous interaction to bring two solitons (at those special conditions) to a proximity closer than what we have demonstrated.
[CrossRef]

Duree, G.

Froehly, C.

Klotz, M.

Krolikowski, W.

In isotropic self-focusing media, the force between mutually incoherent solitons is only attractive.?In photorefractive media, an incoherent collision between screening solitons is primarily attractive (and leads to the results shown in Ref.??10), except in the pathologic case when such two-dimensional solitons collide at a shallow angle and when the plane formed by the collision trajectories is parallel to the c axis (direction of the applied field).?In this case one can observe some small anomalous repulsion, as observed by W. Krolikowski, M. Saffman, B. Luther-Davies, and C. Denz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 3240 (1998).?We believe that it is possible to utilize this anomalous interaction to bring two solitons (at those special conditions) to a proximity closer than what we have demonstrated.
[CrossRef]

Ladouceur, F.

Luther-Davies, B.

In isotropic self-focusing media, the force between mutually incoherent solitons is only attractive.?In photorefractive media, an incoherent collision between screening solitons is primarily attractive (and leads to the results shown in Ref.??10), except in the pathologic case when such two-dimensional solitons collide at a shallow angle and when the plane formed by the collision trajectories is parallel to the c axis (direction of the applied field).?In this case one can observe some small anomalous repulsion, as observed by W. Krolikowski, M. Saffman, B. Luther-Davies, and C. Denz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 3240 (1998).?We believe that it is possible to utilize this anomalous interaction to bring two solitons (at those special conditions) to a proximity closer than what we have demonstrated.
[CrossRef]

Mamyshev, P. V.

P. V. Mamyshev, A. Villeneuve, G. I. Stegeman, and J. S. Aitchison, Electron. Lett. 30, 726 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Meng, H.

Mitchell, D. J.

Mitchell, M.

M. Shih, Z. Chen, M. Mitchell, and M. Segev, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 3091 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Note the distinction from incoherent solitons, which are partially spatially incoherent M. Mitchell, Z. Chen, M. Shih, and M. Segev, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 490 (1996)or spatially and temporally incoherent M. Mitchell and M. Segev, Nature (London) 387, 880 (1997) entities.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Montgomery, S. R.

Morin, M.

Polodian, L.

Saffman, M.

In isotropic self-focusing media, the force between mutually incoherent solitons is only attractive.?In photorefractive media, an incoherent collision between screening solitons is primarily attractive (and leads to the results shown in Ref.??10), except in the pathologic case when such two-dimensional solitons collide at a shallow angle and when the plane formed by the collision trajectories is parallel to the c axis (direction of the applied field).?In this case one can observe some small anomalous repulsion, as observed by W. Krolikowski, M. Saffman, B. Luther-Davies, and C. Denz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 3240 (1998).?We believe that it is possible to utilize this anomalous interaction to bring two solitons (at those special conditions) to a proximity closer than what we have demonstrated.
[CrossRef]

Salamo, G.

Segev, M.

Shih, M.

Snyder, A. W.

Stegeman, G. I.

M. Segev and G. I. Stegeman, Phys. Today 51(8), 42 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. V. Mamyshev, A. Villeneuve, G. I. Stegeman, and J. S. Aitchison, Electron. Lett. 30, 726 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Villeneuve, A.

P. V. Mamyshev, A. Villeneuve, G. I. Stegeman, and J. S. Aitchison, Electron. Lett. 30, 726 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Yariv, A.

A. Yariv, Optical Electronics in Modern Communications, 5th ed. (Oxford, New York, 1996), Chap. 13.8, pp. 521–525.

Electron. Lett. (1)

P. V. Mamyshev, A. Villeneuve, G. I. Stegeman, and J. S. Aitchison, Electron. Lett. 30, 726 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Lett. (7)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

In isotropic self-focusing media, the force between mutually incoherent solitons is only attractive.?In photorefractive media, an incoherent collision between screening solitons is primarily attractive (and leads to the results shown in Ref.??10), except in the pathologic case when such two-dimensional solitons collide at a shallow angle and when the plane formed by the collision trajectories is parallel to the c axis (direction of the applied field).?In this case one can observe some small anomalous repulsion, as observed by W. Krolikowski, M. Saffman, B. Luther-Davies, and C. Denz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 3240 (1998).?We believe that it is possible to utilize this anomalous interaction to bring two solitons (at those special conditions) to a proximity closer than what we have demonstrated.
[CrossRef]

Note the distinction from incoherent solitons, which are partially spatially incoherent M. Mitchell, Z. Chen, M. Shih, and M. Segev, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 490 (1996)or spatially and temporally incoherent M. Mitchell and M. Segev, Nature (London) 387, 880 (1997) entities.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Today (1)

M. Segev and G. I. Stegeman, Phys. Today 51(8), 42 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

A. Yariv, Optical Electronics in Modern Communications, 5th ed. (Oxford, New York, 1996), Chap. 13.8, pp. 521–525.

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Photographs and profiles of (a) both output solitons, (b) left soliton output when the right soliton is blocked for a time window much shorter than the response time of the nonlinearity, (c) as in (b) but with right and left solitons exchanging roles, (d) output probe beam when both solitons are on, (e) output probe when only the left soliton (into which the probe is launched) is present, (f) output probe when only the right soliton is present and the probe is launched into where the left soliton had been.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Photographs of the soliton beams (top) and photographs and profiles of the probe beams (which are all launched into the left soliton; middle and bottom) exiting the crystal, for various separation distances between the solitons.

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