Abstract

By accurate measurement of the angle of reflection of a laser beam that is incident upon a reflective surface with a position-sensitive detector, changes in the surface-normal direction (the slope or the derivative of the surface) can be determined directly. An instrument has been built that makes repeated measurements over the surface and uses the collected data to produce a gray-scale image of the slope. The resolution of this system for detecting changes in the surface-normal direction is found to be better than 0.01°. By focusing of the laser beam to achieve a lateral resolution of 5 μm, the resolvable surface-height change owing to a variation in slope is estimated to be <1 nm.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. Veeco Instruments, Inc., Terminal Drive, Plainview, N.Y. 11803.
  2. KLA-Tencor, 160 Rio Robles, San Jose, Calif. 95134.
  3. G. Binning, Surf. Sci. 131, L379 (1983).
  4. D. K. Hamilton and H. J. Matthews, Optik 71, 31 (1985).
  5. G. S. Kino and T. R. Corle, Phys. Today 42(9), 55 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  6. T. R. Corle, C. H. Chou, and G. S. Kino, Opt. Lett. 11, 770 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. See review by J. Schwider, Prog. Opt. 28, 271 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  8. ZYGO Co., Laurel Brook Road, Middlefield, Conn. 06455.
  9. See reviews by I. Sherrington and E. H. Smith, Wear 125, 271, 289 (1988).
  10. M. Born and E. Wolf, Principle of Optics, 6th (corrected) ed. (Pergamon, New York, 1993).
  11. H. Sugawara, M. Yanagihara, S. Asaoka, M. Okusawa, and H. Maezawa, J. Electron. Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 80, 485 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  12. Melles Griot Catalog 1995/96. pp. 1-31 and 7-8.

1996

H. Sugawara, M. Yanagihara, S. Asaoka, M. Okusawa, and H. Maezawa, J. Electron. Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 80, 485 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1990

See review by J. Schwider, Prog. Opt. 28, 271 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989

G. S. Kino and T. R. Corle, Phys. Today 42(9), 55 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988

See reviews by I. Sherrington and E. H. Smith, Wear 125, 271, 289 (1988).

1986

1985

D. K. Hamilton and H. J. Matthews, Optik 71, 31 (1985).

1983

G. Binning, Surf. Sci. 131, L379 (1983).

Asaoka, S.

H. Sugawara, M. Yanagihara, S. Asaoka, M. Okusawa, and H. Maezawa, J. Electron. Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 80, 485 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Binning, G.

G. Binning, Surf. Sci. 131, L379 (1983).

Chou, C. H.

Corle, T. R.

Hamilton, D. K.

D. K. Hamilton and H. J. Matthews, Optik 71, 31 (1985).

Kino, G. S.

Maezawa, H.

H. Sugawara, M. Yanagihara, S. Asaoka, M. Okusawa, and H. Maezawa, J. Electron. Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 80, 485 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Matthews, H. J.

D. K. Hamilton and H. J. Matthews, Optik 71, 31 (1985).

Okusawa, M.

H. Sugawara, M. Yanagihara, S. Asaoka, M. Okusawa, and H. Maezawa, J. Electron. Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 80, 485 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Schwider, J.

See review by J. Schwider, Prog. Opt. 28, 271 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Sherrington, I.

See reviews by I. Sherrington and E. H. Smith, Wear 125, 271, 289 (1988).

Smith, E. H.

See reviews by I. Sherrington and E. H. Smith, Wear 125, 271, 289 (1988).

Sugawara, H.

H. Sugawara, M. Yanagihara, S. Asaoka, M. Okusawa, and H. Maezawa, J. Electron. Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 80, 485 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Yanagihara, M.

H. Sugawara, M. Yanagihara, S. Asaoka, M. Okusawa, and H. Maezawa, J. Electron. Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 80, 485 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Electron. Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom.

H. Sugawara, M. Yanagihara, S. Asaoka, M. Okusawa, and H. Maezawa, J. Electron. Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 80, 485 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Optik

D. K. Hamilton and H. J. Matthews, Optik 71, 31 (1985).

Phys. Today

G. S. Kino and T. R. Corle, Phys. Today 42(9), 55 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Prog. Opt.

See review by J. Schwider, Prog. Opt. 28, 271 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Surf. Sci.

G. Binning, Surf. Sci. 131, L379 (1983).

Wear

See reviews by I. Sherrington and E. H. Smith, Wear 125, 271, 289 (1988).

Other

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principle of Optics, 6th (corrected) ed. (Pergamon, New York, 1993).

ZYGO Co., Laurel Brook Road, Middlefield, Conn. 06455.

Veeco Instruments, Inc., Terminal Drive, Plainview, N.Y. 11803.

KLA-Tencor, 160 Rio Robles, San Jose, Calif. 95134.

Melles Griot Catalog 1995/96. pp. 1-31 and 7-8.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Principle of operation of the surface-profiler system.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Practical surface-profiling instrument.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Images of a 2  mm by 2  mm area of mask alignment markers on a polished silicon wafer. The images are produced by (a) the surface profiler and (b) an optical microscope.

Equations (1)

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Δx=2δxL,Δy=2δyLcosθ,

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