Abstract

In dense wavelength-division-multiplexed transmission with strong dispersion management, most pulses inevitably have many partial collisions with pulses of an interacting channel. These partial collisions, in conjunction with the effects of complete collisions, tend to produce unacceptably large timing jitter in high-bit-rate, long-distance transmission. With the use of frequency-guiding filters, however, the timing jitter is dramatically reduced and tends to remain indefinitely clamped to acceptably small levels.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. Suzuki, I. Morita, N. Edagawa, S. Yamamoto, H. Taga, and S. Akiba, Electron. Lett. 31, 2027 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  2. N. J. Smith, F. M. Knox, N. J. Doran, K. J. Blow, and I. Bennion, Electron. Lett. 32, 54 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  3. G. M. Carter, J. M. Jacob, C. R. Menyuk, E. A. Golovchenko, and A. N. Pilipetskii, Opt. Lett. 22, 513 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. P. V. Mamyshev and L. F. Mollenauer, Opt. Lett. 21, 396 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. A. M. Niculae, W. Forysiak, A. J. Gloag, H. B. Nijhof, and N. J. Doran, Opt. Lett. 23, 1354 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. Wabnitz, Opt. Lett. 21, 638 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. E. A. Golovchenko, A. N. Pilipetskii, and C. R. Menyuk, Opt. Lett. 22, 1156 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. L. F. Mollenauer, S. G. Evangelides, and J. P. Gordon, J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 362 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  9. P. A. Andrekson, N. A. Olson, J. R. Simpson, T. Tanbun-ek, R. A. Logan, P. C. Becker, and K. W. Wecht, Electron. Lett. 26, 1499 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  10. L. F. Mollenauer, P. V. Mamyshev, and J. P. Gordon, Opt. Lett. 24, 220 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  11. L. F. Mollenauer, J. P. Gordon, and S. G. Evangelides, Opt. Lett. 17, 1575 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

1998 (1)

1997 (2)

1996 (3)

1995 (1)

M. Suzuki, I. Morita, N. Edagawa, S. Yamamoto, H. Taga, and S. Akiba, Electron. Lett. 31, 2027 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

1991 (1)

L. F. Mollenauer, S. G. Evangelides, and J. P. Gordon, J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 362 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

P. A. Andrekson, N. A. Olson, J. R. Simpson, T. Tanbun-ek, R. A. Logan, P. C. Becker, and K. W. Wecht, Electron. Lett. 26, 1499 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Akiba, S.

M. Suzuki, I. Morita, N. Edagawa, S. Yamamoto, H. Taga, and S. Akiba, Electron. Lett. 31, 2027 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Andrekson, P. A.

P. A. Andrekson, N. A. Olson, J. R. Simpson, T. Tanbun-ek, R. A. Logan, P. C. Becker, and K. W. Wecht, Electron. Lett. 26, 1499 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Becker, P. C.

P. A. Andrekson, N. A. Olson, J. R. Simpson, T. Tanbun-ek, R. A. Logan, P. C. Becker, and K. W. Wecht, Electron. Lett. 26, 1499 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Bennion, I.

N. J. Smith, F. M. Knox, N. J. Doran, K. J. Blow, and I. Bennion, Electron. Lett. 32, 54 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Blow, K. J.

N. J. Smith, F. M. Knox, N. J. Doran, K. J. Blow, and I. Bennion, Electron. Lett. 32, 54 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Carter, G. M.

Doran, N. J.

A. M. Niculae, W. Forysiak, A. J. Gloag, H. B. Nijhof, and N. J. Doran, Opt. Lett. 23, 1354 (1998).
[CrossRef]

N. J. Smith, F. M. Knox, N. J. Doran, K. J. Blow, and I. Bennion, Electron. Lett. 32, 54 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Edagawa, N.

M. Suzuki, I. Morita, N. Edagawa, S. Yamamoto, H. Taga, and S. Akiba, Electron. Lett. 31, 2027 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Evangelides, S. G.

L. F. Mollenauer, J. P. Gordon, and S. G. Evangelides, Opt. Lett. 17, 1575 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. F. Mollenauer, S. G. Evangelides, and J. P. Gordon, J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 362 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Forysiak, W.

Gloag, A. J.

Golovchenko, E. A.

Gordon, J. P.

Jacob, J. M.

Knox, F. M.

N. J. Smith, F. M. Knox, N. J. Doran, K. J. Blow, and I. Bennion, Electron. Lett. 32, 54 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Logan, R. A.

P. A. Andrekson, N. A. Olson, J. R. Simpson, T. Tanbun-ek, R. A. Logan, P. C. Becker, and K. W. Wecht, Electron. Lett. 26, 1499 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Mamyshev, P. V.

Menyuk, C. R.

Mollenauer, L. F.

Morita, I.

M. Suzuki, I. Morita, N. Edagawa, S. Yamamoto, H. Taga, and S. Akiba, Electron. Lett. 31, 2027 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Niculae, A. M.

Nijhof, H. B.

Olson, N. A.

P. A. Andrekson, N. A. Olson, J. R. Simpson, T. Tanbun-ek, R. A. Logan, P. C. Becker, and K. W. Wecht, Electron. Lett. 26, 1499 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Pilipetskii, A. N.

Simpson, J. R.

P. A. Andrekson, N. A. Olson, J. R. Simpson, T. Tanbun-ek, R. A. Logan, P. C. Becker, and K. W. Wecht, Electron. Lett. 26, 1499 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Smith, N. J.

N. J. Smith, F. M. Knox, N. J. Doran, K. J. Blow, and I. Bennion, Electron. Lett. 32, 54 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, M.

M. Suzuki, I. Morita, N. Edagawa, S. Yamamoto, H. Taga, and S. Akiba, Electron. Lett. 31, 2027 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Taga, H.

M. Suzuki, I. Morita, N. Edagawa, S. Yamamoto, H. Taga, and S. Akiba, Electron. Lett. 31, 2027 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Tanbun-ek, T.

P. A. Andrekson, N. A. Olson, J. R. Simpson, T. Tanbun-ek, R. A. Logan, P. C. Becker, and K. W. Wecht, Electron. Lett. 26, 1499 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Wabnitz, S.

Wecht, K. W.

P. A. Andrekson, N. A. Olson, J. R. Simpson, T. Tanbun-ek, R. A. Logan, P. C. Becker, and K. W. Wecht, Electron. Lett. 26, 1499 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, S.

M. Suzuki, I. Morita, N. Edagawa, S. Yamamoto, H. Taga, and S. Akiba, Electron. Lett. 31, 2027 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (3)

M. Suzuki, I. Morita, N. Edagawa, S. Yamamoto, H. Taga, and S. Akiba, Electron. Lett. 31, 2027 (1995).
[CrossRef]

N. J. Smith, F. M. Knox, N. J. Doran, K. J. Blow, and I. Bennion, Electron. Lett. 32, 54 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Andrekson, N. A. Olson, J. R. Simpson, T. Tanbun-ek, R. A. Logan, P. C. Becker, and K. W. Wecht, Electron. Lett. 26, 1499 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

L. F. Mollenauer, S. G. Evangelides, and J. P. Gordon, J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 362 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (7)

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Evolution of the soliton frequency shift δfz during collision with another soliton, for several channel separations Δλ.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Curves 1, the worst-case situation for pulse frequency and time shifts in a DM transmission without guiding filters. The channel is surrounded by eight WDM channels with Δλ=0.6 nm channel separation; all the channels are copolarized. Curves 2, the same as curves 1 but with adjacent channels orthogonally polarized. Curves 3, the same as curves 1 but for guiding filters with Ldamp=1.2 Mm. Curves 4, the same as curves 3 but with adjacent channels orthogonally polarized. Curves  1–4 were obtained numerically. Curve 5, the same as curve  1 but obtained analytically.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Simulated eye diagram at 10  Mm of one of the middle channels of an eight-channel DM soliton WDM transmission, after detection and integration with a five-pole, low-pass Bessel filter whose 3-dB point is at 5.5  GHz. The channel separation is Δλ=0.6 nm.

Equations (6)

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Lcoll2τD¯Δλ+D+-D¯L+D¯2τD¯Δλ+τeffD¯Δλ.
δfmax2n2ϵL+D+AD¯λΔλ2=2n2ϵAD¯λΔλτeff.
δτD¯λ2/cδfdzαD¯Lcollδfmaxλ2/cα2n2ϵλcAD¯Δλ2.
δτcδτL-Lcoll/2/lcoll=α2n2ϵλcATΔλL-Lcoll/2.
δτpcβδfmaxNscL-Lcoll/2D¯λ2/cβ2n2ϵλcATΔλL-Lcoll/2.
δτc,pcα,βD¯δfmaxλ2cL22lcollα,βn2ϵλcATΔλL2Lcoll.

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