Abstract

We report on the laser emission of erbium-doped fluoride glasses in the spectral range from 2.7 to 2.8 μm. The pump source was a fiber-coupled InGaAs semiconductor laser emitting near λp970 nm. The laser performance of bulk samples with various ErF3 contents was investigated with respect to the optimum doping concentration, which is estimated to be higher than 8  mol.  %. A maximum output power of Pout>160 mW and a slope efficiency of η=10% were achieved. Results are compared with previously published data on erbium-doped ZBLAN fiber and LiYF4 crystal lasers.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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  1. L. Esterowitz and R. Allen, Proc. SPIE 1048, 129 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  2. B. Srinivasan, E. Poppe, and R. K. Jain, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 6 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), p. 297, paper CWM2.
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  4. M. Pollnau, Ch. Ghisler, W. Lüthy, H. P. Weber, J. Schneider, and U. B. Unrau, Opt. Lett. 22, 612 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. M. Pollnau, Ch. Ghisler, W. Lüthy, and H. P. Weber, Appl. Phys. B 67, 23 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  6. C. A. Millar, M. C. Brierley, M. H. Hunt, and S. F. Carter, Electron. Lett. 26, 1871 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. Bedö, M. Pollnau, W. Lüthy, and H. P. Weber, Opt. Commun. 116, 81 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. C. Stoneman, J. G. Lynn, and L. Esterowitz, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1041 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. C. Stoneman and L. Esterowitz, Opt. Lett. 17, 816 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. M. Pollnau, Th. Graf, E. Balmer, W. Lüthy, and H. P. Weber, Phys. Rev. A 49, 3990 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. T. Jensen, A. Diening, G. Huber, and B. H. T. Chai, Opt. Lett. 21, 585 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. F. Auzel, D. Meichenin, and H. Poignant, Electron. Lett. 24, 1463 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  13. T. Jensen, “Upconversion-Prozesse und Wirkungsquerschnitte in Er3+-dotierten 3 ?m Fluorid- und Granat-Lasern, gepumpt mit cw und quasi-cw Dioden-Arrays,” Ph.D. dissertation (Universität Hamburg, Hamburg, 1996).
  14. S. A. Pollack and M. Robinson, Electron. Lett. 24, 320 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  15. M. Pollnau, Ch. Ghisler, G. Bunea, W. Lüthy, and H. P. Weber, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3564 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  16. X. Zhao, B. Srinivasan, P. Pulaski, S. Gupta, and R. K. Jain, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Europe, 1998 (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), postdeadline paper CPD 1.7.
  17. E. Poppe, B. Srinivasan, and R. Jain, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 6 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 80–81, paper CTuE7.

1998 (1)

M. Pollnau, Ch. Ghisler, W. Lüthy, and H. P. Weber, Appl. Phys. B 67, 23 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1996 (1)

1995 (2)

S. Bedö, M. Pollnau, W. Lüthy, and H. P. Weber, Opt. Commun. 116, 81 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Pollnau, Ch. Ghisler, G. Bunea, W. Lüthy, and H. P. Weber, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3564 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

M. Pollnau, Th. Graf, E. Balmer, W. Lüthy, and H. P. Weber, Phys. Rev. A 49, 3990 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (2)

R. C. Stoneman, J. G. Lynn, and L. Esterowitz, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1041 (1992).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Stoneman and L. Esterowitz, Opt. Lett. 17, 816 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

C. A. Millar, M. C. Brierley, M. H. Hunt, and S. F. Carter, Electron. Lett. 26, 1871 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

L. Esterowitz and R. Allen, Proc. SPIE 1048, 129 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (2)

F. Auzel, D. Meichenin, and H. Poignant, Electron. Lett. 24, 1463 (1988).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Pollack and M. Robinson, Electron. Lett. 24, 320 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Allen, R.

L. Esterowitz and R. Allen, Proc. SPIE 1048, 129 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Auzel, F.

F. Auzel, D. Meichenin, and H. Poignant, Electron. Lett. 24, 1463 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Balmer, E.

M. Pollnau, Th. Graf, E. Balmer, W. Lüthy, and H. P. Weber, Phys. Rev. A 49, 3990 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bedö, S.

S. Bedö, M. Pollnau, W. Lüthy, and H. P. Weber, Opt. Commun. 116, 81 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Brierley, M. C.

C. A. Millar, M. C. Brierley, M. H. Hunt, and S. F. Carter, Electron. Lett. 26, 1871 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Bunea, G.

M. Pollnau, Ch. Ghisler, G. Bunea, W. Lüthy, and H. P. Weber, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3564 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Carter, S. F.

C. A. Millar, M. C. Brierley, M. H. Hunt, and S. F. Carter, Electron. Lett. 26, 1871 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Chai, B. H. T.

Diening, A.

Esterowitz, L.

R. C. Stoneman, J. G. Lynn, and L. Esterowitz, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1041 (1992).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Stoneman and L. Esterowitz, Opt. Lett. 17, 816 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Esterowitz and R. Allen, Proc. SPIE 1048, 129 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Ghisler, Ch.

M. Pollnau, Ch. Ghisler, W. Lüthy, and H. P. Weber, Appl. Phys. B 67, 23 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Pollnau, Ch. Ghisler, W. Lüthy, H. P. Weber, J. Schneider, and U. B. Unrau, Opt. Lett. 22, 612 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pollnau, Ch. Ghisler, G. Bunea, W. Lüthy, and H. P. Weber, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3564 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Graf, Th.

M. Pollnau, Th. Graf, E. Balmer, W. Lüthy, and H. P. Weber, Phys. Rev. A 49, 3990 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gupta, S.

X. Zhao, B. Srinivasan, P. Pulaski, S. Gupta, and R. K. Jain, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Europe, 1998 (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), postdeadline paper CPD 1.7.

Huber, G.

Hunt, M. H.

C. A. Millar, M. C. Brierley, M. H. Hunt, and S. F. Carter, Electron. Lett. 26, 1871 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Jain, R.

E. Poppe, B. Srinivasan, and R. Jain, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 6 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 80–81, paper CTuE7.

Jain, R. K.

X. Zhao, B. Srinivasan, P. Pulaski, S. Gupta, and R. K. Jain, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Europe, 1998 (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), postdeadline paper CPD 1.7.

B. Srinivasan, E. Poppe, and R. K. Jain, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 6 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), p. 297, paper CWM2.

Jensen, T.

T. Jensen, A. Diening, G. Huber, and B. H. T. Chai, Opt. Lett. 21, 585 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Jensen, “Upconversion-Prozesse und Wirkungsquerschnitte in Er3+-dotierten 3 ?m Fluorid- und Granat-Lasern, gepumpt mit cw und quasi-cw Dioden-Arrays,” Ph.D. dissertation (Universität Hamburg, Hamburg, 1996).

Lüthy, W.

M. Pollnau, Ch. Ghisler, W. Lüthy, and H. P. Weber, Appl. Phys. B 67, 23 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Pollnau, Ch. Ghisler, W. Lüthy, H. P. Weber, J. Schneider, and U. B. Unrau, Opt. Lett. 22, 612 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Bedö, M. Pollnau, W. Lüthy, and H. P. Weber, Opt. Commun. 116, 81 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Pollnau, Ch. Ghisler, G. Bunea, W. Lüthy, and H. P. Weber, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3564 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Pollnau, Th. Graf, E. Balmer, W. Lüthy, and H. P. Weber, Phys. Rev. A 49, 3990 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lynn, J. G.

R. C. Stoneman, J. G. Lynn, and L. Esterowitz, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1041 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Meichenin, D.

F. Auzel, D. Meichenin, and H. Poignant, Electron. Lett. 24, 1463 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Millar, C. A.

C. A. Millar, M. C. Brierley, M. H. Hunt, and S. F. Carter, Electron. Lett. 26, 1871 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Poignant, H.

F. Auzel, D. Meichenin, and H. Poignant, Electron. Lett. 24, 1463 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Pollack, S. A.

S. A. Pollack and M. Robinson, Electron. Lett. 24, 320 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Pollnau, M.

M. Pollnau, Ch. Ghisler, W. Lüthy, and H. P. Weber, Appl. Phys. B 67, 23 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Pollnau, Ch. Ghisler, W. Lüthy, H. P. Weber, J. Schneider, and U. B. Unrau, Opt. Lett. 22, 612 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Bedö, M. Pollnau, W. Lüthy, and H. P. Weber, Opt. Commun. 116, 81 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Pollnau, Ch. Ghisler, G. Bunea, W. Lüthy, and H. P. Weber, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3564 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Pollnau, Th. Graf, E. Balmer, W. Lüthy, and H. P. Weber, Phys. Rev. A 49, 3990 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Poppe, E.

B. Srinivasan, E. Poppe, and R. K. Jain, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 6 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), p. 297, paper CWM2.

E. Poppe, B. Srinivasan, and R. Jain, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 6 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 80–81, paper CTuE7.

Pulaski, P.

X. Zhao, B. Srinivasan, P. Pulaski, S. Gupta, and R. K. Jain, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Europe, 1998 (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), postdeadline paper CPD 1.7.

Robinson, M.

S. A. Pollack and M. Robinson, Electron. Lett. 24, 320 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Schneider, J.

Srinivasan, B.

B. Srinivasan, E. Poppe, and R. K. Jain, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 6 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), p. 297, paper CWM2.

E. Poppe, B. Srinivasan, and R. Jain, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 6 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 80–81, paper CTuE7.

X. Zhao, B. Srinivasan, P. Pulaski, S. Gupta, and R. K. Jain, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Europe, 1998 (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), postdeadline paper CPD 1.7.

Stoneman, R. C.

R. C. Stoneman and L. Esterowitz, Opt. Lett. 17, 816 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. C. Stoneman, J. G. Lynn, and L. Esterowitz, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1041 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Unrau, U. B.

Weber, H. P.

M. Pollnau, Ch. Ghisler, W. Lüthy, and H. P. Weber, Appl. Phys. B 67, 23 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Pollnau, Ch. Ghisler, W. Lüthy, H. P. Weber, J. Schneider, and U. B. Unrau, Opt. Lett. 22, 612 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Bedö, M. Pollnau, W. Lüthy, and H. P. Weber, Opt. Commun. 116, 81 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Pollnau, Ch. Ghisler, G. Bunea, W. Lüthy, and H. P. Weber, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3564 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Pollnau, Th. Graf, E. Balmer, W. Lüthy, and H. P. Weber, Phys. Rev. A 49, 3990 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wetenkamp, L.

L. Wetenkamp, “Charakterisierung von laseraktiv dotierten Schwermetallfluorid-Gläsern und Faserlasern,” Ph.D. dissertation (Technische Universität Braunschweig, Braunschweig, 1991).

Zhao, X.

X. Zhao, B. Srinivasan, P. Pulaski, S. Gupta, and R. K. Jain, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Europe, 1998 (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), postdeadline paper CPD 1.7.

Appl. Phys. B (1)

M. Pollnau, Ch. Ghisler, W. Lüthy, and H. P. Weber, Appl. Phys. B 67, 23 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

M. Pollnau, Ch. Ghisler, G. Bunea, W. Lüthy, and H. P. Weber, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3564 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (3)

F. Auzel, D. Meichenin, and H. Poignant, Electron. Lett. 24, 1463 (1988).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Pollack and M. Robinson, Electron. Lett. 24, 320 (1988).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Millar, M. C. Brierley, M. H. Hunt, and S. F. Carter, Electron. Lett. 26, 1871 (1990).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. C. Stoneman, J. G. Lynn, and L. Esterowitz, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1041 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

S. Bedö, M. Pollnau, W. Lüthy, and H. P. Weber, Opt. Commun. 116, 81 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

M. Pollnau, Th. Graf, E. Balmer, W. Lüthy, and H. P. Weber, Phys. Rev. A 49, 3990 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (1)

L. Esterowitz and R. Allen, Proc. SPIE 1048, 129 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

B. Srinivasan, E. Poppe, and R. K. Jain, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 6 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), p. 297, paper CWM2.

L. Wetenkamp, “Charakterisierung von laseraktiv dotierten Schwermetallfluorid-Gläsern und Faserlasern,” Ph.D. dissertation (Technische Universität Braunschweig, Braunschweig, 1991).

T. Jensen, “Upconversion-Prozesse und Wirkungsquerschnitte in Er3+-dotierten 3 ?m Fluorid- und Granat-Lasern, gepumpt mit cw und quasi-cw Dioden-Arrays,” Ph.D. dissertation (Universität Hamburg, Hamburg, 1996).

X. Zhao, B. Srinivasan, P. Pulaski, S. Gupta, and R. K. Jain, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Europe, 1998 (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), postdeadline paper CPD 1.7.

E. Poppe, B. Srinivasan, and R. Jain, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 6 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 80–81, paper CTuE7.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Energy-level diagram and excitation scheme of Er3+-doped FG. Classification of the mulitplets according to Wetenkamp3: 1, ground-state absorption; 2, 2.8μm laser transition; 3, 0.85μm laser transition; 4, upconversion; 5, cross relaxation.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Ground-state absorption spectrum of an Er(1  mol. %): FG bulk sample.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Setup for the laser experiments (schematic): LD, laser diode with fiber coupling; f1, collimator; f2, focusing lens; M1, plane resonator mirror; M2, spherical resonator mirror; FG, erbium-doped bulk sample; H, water-cooled copper heat sink; f3, lens to focus laser radiation into the detection system (D); Ge, germanium filter blocking residual pump light.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Input–output characteristics of three Er3+-doped FG bulk samples. Pin, incident pump power; Pout, total output coupling through both mirrors (M1 and M2 have identical dielectric coatings).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Comparison of Laser Parameters of Several Er 3+ -Doped Host Materials

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