Abstract

We propose and demonstrate a novel method for recording second-harmonic volume index gratings in photorefractive crystals. The fundamental component of the index grating is eliminated by means of a π-phase shifted double-exposure process that uses the Mach–Zehnder interferometric technique. Experimental results for K0.5Na0.50.2Sr0.75Ba0.250.9Nb2O6 crystals are presented and discussed.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. P. Yeh, Introduction to Photorefractive Nonlinear Optics (Wiley, New York, 1993).
  2. R. Saxena and T. Y. Chang, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 1467 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  4. J. P. Huignard, J. P. Herriau, and F. Micheron, Ferroelectrics 11, 393 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  5. P. Yeh, T. Y. Chang, and P. H. Beckwith, Opt. Lett. 13, 586 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

1991 (1)

1990 (1)

1988 (1)

1976 (1)

J. P. Huignard, J. P. Herriau, and F. Micheron, Ferroelectrics 11, 393 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Ferroelectrics (1)

J. P. Huignard, J. P. Herriau, and F. Micheron, Ferroelectrics 11, 393 (1976).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (1)

P. Yeh, Introduction to Photorefractive Nonlinear Optics (Wiley, New York, 1993).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Intensity pattern and harmonic space-charge field. Ix is the intensity pattern. E1, E2, E3, are the Fourier components of the space-charge field of the index grating recorded in a crystal. E is the total space-charge field of the index grating. There is an asymmetrical distortion between the space-charge field and the intensity pattern.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic drawing of the experimental setup for the double-exposure scheme: PBS, polarization beam splitter; λ/2, half-wave plate; BS's, beam splitters; D's, powermeters; M's, mirrors.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured diffraction efficiencies of five orders of harmonic index gratings. (a) The diffraction efficiencies of the harmonic index gratings versus the incident angles. (b) The diffraction efficiencies of the harmonic index gratings versus the modulation depth. (c) The normalized intensity of the diffracted beam of the harmonic index gratings during readout.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measured diffraction efficiencies of the fundamental (1-K) and the second-harmonic (2-K) index gratings during exposure.

Equations (6)

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E=E1sinK·x+E2sin2K·x+E3sin3K·x+,
E=E2sin2K·x+E4sin4K·x+.
E1=E101-exp-t1/τg,
E2=E201-exp-t1/τg,
E1=1-exp-t1/τgexp-t2/τe-1-exp-t2/τgE10,
E2= 1-exp-t1/τgexp-t2/τe +1-exp-t2/τgE20,

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