Abstract

Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) was used to characterize completely the polarization state of light backscattered from turbid media. Using a low-coherence light source, one can determine the Stokes parameters of backscattered light as a function of optical path in turbid media. To demonstrate the application of this technique we determined the birefringence and the optical axis in fibrous tissue (rodent muscle) and in  vivo rodent skin. PS-OCT has potentially useful applications in biomedical optics by imaging simultaneously the structural properties of turbid biological materials and their effects on the polarization state of backscattered light. This method may also find applications in material science for investigation of polarization properties (e.g., birefringence) in opaque media such as ceramics and crystals.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. D. Huang, E. A. Sawnson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. L. Mandel and E. Wolf, in Optical Coherence and Quantum Optics (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1995), Chap.??3.
    [CrossRef]
  10. Ref.??9, Chap.??6.

1998 (3)

1997 (1)

1995 (1)

1992 (1)

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Sawnson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1973 (1)

H. F. Hazebroek and A. A. Holscher, J. Phys. E 6, 822 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Sawnson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Z.

Colston, B. W.

Da Silva, L. B.

de Boer, J. F.

Everett, M. J.

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Sawnson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

M. R. Hee, D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 903 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. Huang, E. A. Sawnson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Sawnson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hazebroek, H. F.

H. F. Hazebroek and A. A. Holscher, J. Phys. E 6, 822 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Hee, M. R.

M. R. Hee, D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 903 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. Huang, E. A. Sawnson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holscher, A. A.

H. F. Hazebroek and A. A. Holscher, J. Phys. E 6, 822 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Hovenier, J. W.

Huang, D.

M. R. Hee, D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 903 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. Huang, E. A. Sawnson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Sawnson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Malekafzali, A.

Mandel, L.

L. Mandel and E. Wolf, in Optical Coherence and Quantum Optics (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1995), Chap.??3.
[CrossRef]

Milner, T. E.

Mishchenko, M. I.

Nelson, J. S.

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Sawnson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sawnson, E. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Sawnson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmitt, J. M.

Schoenenberger, K.

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Sawnson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Srinivas, S. S.

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Sawnson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swanson, E. A.

van Gemert, M. J. C.

Wolf, E.

L. Mandel and E. Wolf, in Optical Coherence and Quantum Optics (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1995), Chap.??3.
[CrossRef]

Xiang, S. H.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Phys. E (1)

H. F. Hazebroek and A. A. Holscher, J. Phys. E 6, 822 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Science (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Sawnson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

L. Mandel and E. Wolf, in Optical Coherence and Quantum Optics (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1995), Chap.??3.
[CrossRef]

Ref.??9, Chap.??6.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the PS-OCT system: SLD, superluminescent diode; L's, lenses; P, polarizer; BS, beam splitter; QWP's, quarter-wave plates; NDF, neutral-density filter; PBS, polarizing beam splitter; PZT, piezoelectric transducer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

PS-OCT images of ex  vivo rodent muscle (1 mm×1 mm; pixel size, 10 μm×10 m). From left to right, the images show the Stokes parameters s0, s1, s2, and s3 in the sample frame for right-circularly polarized incident light. The gray scale to the right gives the magnitude of the signals, with a 35-dB range for s0, and from 1 to -1 for s1, s2, and s3.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Averages of Stokes parameters in the sample frame over all depth profiles of (a) rodent muscle, right-circular incident polarization; (b) rodent muscle, linear incident polarization parallel, perpendicular, and at 45° with the optical axis; (c) rodent muscle, right-circular, parallel, and perpendicular incident polarization; (d) in  vivo rodent skin, right-circular incident polarization.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

PS-OCT images of in  vivo rodent skin (5 mm×1 mm; pixel size, 10 μm×10 μm). From top to bottom, Stokes parameters s0, s1, s2, and s3 in the laboratory frame for right-circularly polarized incident light. The magnitude of signals ranged over 40  dB for s0 and from 1 to -1 for s1, s2, and s3.

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Ex,yzr=-e˜kexp-2ikzr dk,
Ezs=-Rzsak,zse˜kexp-2ikzs dk,
sjzs=trσjJ=Rzsa*k,zsσjak,zsSk dk,
Izs,Δz=2 Re[Ex*zrExzsEy*zrEyzs]=Rzs2 Reak,zsexp-2ikΔz×Sk dk,
Izs,2k=12πRzsak,zsSk for k0.
sjzs=2π2I˜*zs,2kσjI˜zs,2k/Sk dk.

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