Abstract

We report on a novel procedure to measure the linewidth of steep microstructures, based on the polarization anisotropy caused by the structure edges. A liquid-crystal phase shifter and a polarizer are introduced into the imaging optics of a reflection-mode microscope. We apply the principle of phase-shifting interferometry to measure the phase and contrast of a TM-polarized image with the TE-polarized image as reference. The method provides selective edge detection because the polarization difference is localized at the structure edges.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. K.-P. Schröder, W. Mirandé, H. Geuther, and C. Herrmann, Opt. Commun. 115, 568 (1995).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  6. B. M. Law and H. K. Pak, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 379 (1996).
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  7. C. W. See, M. G. Somekh, and R. D. Holmes, Appl. Opt. 35, 6663 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. K. Leonhardt, H. J. Jordan, and H. J. Tizani, Opt. Commun. 80, 205 (1991).
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  9. Y. Otani and T. Yoshizawa, Proc. SPIE 2873, 160 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  10. R. Oldenbourg and G. Mei, J. Microsc. (Oxford) 180, 140 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  11. D. S. Marx and D. Psaltis, Appl. Opt. 36, 6434 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  15. M. Totzeck and H. J. Tiziani, Opt. Commun. 138, 365 (1997).
    [CrossRef]

1997 (2)

D. S. Marx and D. Psaltis, Appl. Opt. 36, 6434 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Totzeck and H. J. Tiziani, Opt. Commun. 138, 365 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (4)

1995 (3)

R. Oldenbourg and G. Mei, J. Microsc. (Oxford) 180, 140 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K.-P. Schröder, W. Mirandé, H. Geuther, and C. Herrmann, Opt. Commun. 115, 568 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Moharam, E. B. Grann, and D. A. Pommet, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 1068 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

S. Herminghaus, C. Bechinger, W. Petersen, and P. Leiderer, Opt. Commun. 112, 16 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. Kimura and T. Wilson, Appl. Opt. 33, 1274 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

K. Leonhardt, H. J. Jordan, and H. J. Tizani, Opt. Commun. 80, 205 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

1988 (1)

Barakat, R.

Bechinger, C.

S. Herminghaus, C. Bechinger, W. Petersen, and P. Leiderer, Opt. Commun. 112, 16 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Cohn, R. F.

Corle, T. R.

T. R. Corle and G. S. Kino, Confocal Scanning Optical Microscopy (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1996), p. 286 f.

Creath, K.

Geuther, H.

K.-P. Schröder, W. Mirandé, H. Geuther, and C. Herrmann, Opt. Commun. 115, 568 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Grann, E. B.

Herminghaus, S.

S. Herminghaus, C. Bechinger, W. Petersen, and P. Leiderer, Opt. Commun. 112, 16 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Herrmann, C.

K.-P. Schröder, W. Mirandé, H. Geuther, and C. Herrmann, Opt. Commun. 115, 568 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Holmes, R. D.

Jordan, H. J.

K. Leonhardt, H. J. Jordan, and H. J. Tizani, Opt. Commun. 80, 205 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kimura, S.

Kino, G. S.

T. R. Corle and G. S. Kino, Confocal Scanning Optical Microscopy (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1996), p. 286 f.

Kruger, J.

Law, B. M.

Leiderer, P.

S. Herminghaus, C. Bechinger, W. Petersen, and P. Leiderer, Opt. Commun. 112, 16 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Leonhardt, K.

K. Leonhardt, H. J. Jordan, and H. J. Tizani, Opt. Commun. 80, 205 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Marx, D. S.

Mei, G.

R. Oldenbourg and G. Mei, J. Microsc. (Oxford) 180, 140 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Mirandé, W.

K.-P. Schröder, W. Mirandé, H. Geuther, and C. Herrmann, Opt. Commun. 115, 568 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Moharam, M. G.

Oldenbourg, R.

R. Oldenbourg and G. Mei, J. Microsc. (Oxford) 180, 140 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Otani, Y.

Y. Otani and T. Yoshizawa, Proc. SPIE 2873, 160 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Pak, H. K.

Petersen, W.

S. Herminghaus, C. Bechinger, W. Petersen, and P. Leiderer, Opt. Commun. 112, 16 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Pommet, D. A.

Psaltis, D.

Schmit, J.

Schröder, K.-P.

K.-P. Schröder, W. Mirandé, H. Geuther, and C. Herrmann, Opt. Commun. 115, 568 (1995).
[CrossRef]

See, C. W.

Somekh, M. G.

Tizani, H. J.

K. Leonhardt, H. J. Jordan, and H. J. Tizani, Opt. Commun. 80, 205 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Tiziani, H. J.

M. Totzeck and H. J. Tiziani, Opt. Commun. 138, 365 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Totzeck, M.

M. Totzeck and H. J. Tiziani, Opt. Commun. 138, 365 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wagner, J. W.

Wilson, T.

Yoshizawa, T.

Y. Otani and T. Yoshizawa, Proc. SPIE 2873, 160 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (6)

J. Microsc. (Oxford) (1)

R. Oldenbourg and G. Mei, J. Microsc. (Oxford) 180, 140 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (2)

Opt. Commun. (4)

M. Totzeck and H. J. Tiziani, Opt. Commun. 138, 365 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Herminghaus, C. Bechinger, W. Petersen, and P. Leiderer, Opt. Commun. 112, 16 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K.-P. Schröder, W. Mirandé, H. Geuther, and C. Herrmann, Opt. Commun. 115, 568 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. Leonhardt, H. J. Jordan, and H. J. Tizani, Opt. Commun. 80, 205 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

Y. Otani and T. Yoshizawa, Proc. SPIE 2873, 160 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

T. R. Corle and G. S. Kino, Confocal Scanning Optical Microscopy (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1996), p. 286 f.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Setup for phase-shifting polarization interferometry: Pol's, polarizers; Obj, object; BS, beam splitter; G, rotating ground glass; T, tube lens; L, 100/0.9  lens; M, 4× lens. Inset, orientation of the structure edges and the polarizing components.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Phase and contrast of the image of a Si grating (1200-nm period, 160-nm depth) in a Si substrate. 2D, two-dimensional.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Contrast and phase of the image of a rectangular Si bar (380-nm width, 160-nm height) on a Si substrate (in focus). Circles, measurement; curves, computation.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Top, phase and contrast as a function of the structure width b for a Si groove of 160-nm depth. Bottom, distance w between minima (stars, left-hand axis) of the contrast image and the center value (line, right-hand axis) of the phase image. Dashed line, correct linewidth.

Equations (2)

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tanϕ=Z/N,γ=Z2+N21/24j=18Ij,
Z=5I2-15I4+11I6-I8,N=I1-11I3+15I5-5I7.

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