Abstract

The transmission spectrum of a metal that is perforated with a periodic array of subwavelength holes exhibits well-defined maxima and minima resulting from, respectively, a transmission enhancement by surface plasmons and Wood's anomaly, a diffraction effect. These features occur at wavelengths determined by the geometry of the hole arrays, the refractive index of the adjacent medium, and the angle of incidence. We demonstrate control of the transmission through variation of these parameters and show that perforated metal films may form a novel basis for electro-optic devices such as flat-panel displays, spatial light modulators, and tunable optical filters.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. H. A. Bethe, Phys. Rev. 66, 163 (1944).
    [CrossRef]
  2. T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, Nature (London) 391, 667 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  3. H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, D. E. Grupp, T. W. Ebbesen, and H. J. Lezec, Phys. Rev. B 58, 6779 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  4. H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1988).
  5. A. D. Boardman, ed., Electromagnetic Surface Modes (Wiley, New York, 1982).
  6. R. W. Wood, Philos. Mag. 4, 396 (1902)Phys. Rev. 48, 928 (1935).
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. Ulrich, Infrared Phys. 7, 37 (1967)L. C. Botten, R. C. McPhedran, and J. M. Lamarre, Int. J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 6, 511 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. A. Ordal, L. L. Long, R. J. Bell, S. E. Bell, R. R. Bell, R. W. Alexander, and C. A. Ward, Appl. Opt. 22, 1099 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. A. F. Evans and D. G. Hall, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 212 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  10. O. Solgaard, F. Ho, J. I. Thackara, and D. M. Bloom, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 2500 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. E. Caldwell and E. M. Yeatman, Appl. Opt. 31, 3880 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. Y. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2759 (1995).
    [CrossRef]

1998 (2)

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, Nature (London) 391, 667 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, D. E. Grupp, T. W. Ebbesen, and H. J. Lezec, Phys. Rev. B 58, 6779 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

Y. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2759 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1992 (2)

O. Solgaard, F. Ho, J. I. Thackara, and D. M. Bloom, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 2500 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Caldwell and E. M. Yeatman, Appl. Opt. 31, 3880 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

A. F. Evans and D. G. Hall, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 212 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

1967 (1)

R. Ulrich, Infrared Phys. 7, 37 (1967)L. C. Botten, R. C. McPhedran, and J. M. Lamarre, Int. J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 6, 511 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1944 (1)

H. A. Bethe, Phys. Rev. 66, 163 (1944).
[CrossRef]

1902 (1)

R. W. Wood, Philos. Mag. 4, 396 (1902)Phys. Rev. 48, 928 (1935).
[CrossRef]

Alexander, R. W.

Bell, R. J.

Bell, R. R.

Bell, S. E.

Bethe, H. A.

H. A. Bethe, Phys. Rev. 66, 163 (1944).
[CrossRef]

Bloom, D. M.

O. Solgaard, F. Ho, J. I. Thackara, and D. M. Bloom, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 2500 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Caldwell, M. E.

Ebbesen, T. W.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, Nature (London) 391, 667 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, D. E. Grupp, T. W. Ebbesen, and H. J. Lezec, Phys. Rev. B 58, 6779 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Evans, A. F.

A. F. Evans and D. G. Hall, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 212 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Ghaemi, H. F.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, Nature (London) 391, 667 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, D. E. Grupp, T. W. Ebbesen, and H. J. Lezec, Phys. Rev. B 58, 6779 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Grupp, D. E.

H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, D. E. Grupp, T. W. Ebbesen, and H. J. Lezec, Phys. Rev. B 58, 6779 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hall, D. G.

A. F. Evans and D. G. Hall, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 212 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Ho, F.

O. Solgaard, F. Ho, J. I. Thackara, and D. M. Bloom, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 2500 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Lezec, H. J.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, Nature (London) 391, 667 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, D. E. Grupp, T. W. Ebbesen, and H. J. Lezec, Phys. Rev. B 58, 6779 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Long, L. L.

Ordal, M. A.

Raether, H.

H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1988).

Solgaard, O.

O. Solgaard, F. Ho, J. I. Thackara, and D. M. Bloom, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 2500 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Thackara, J. I.

O. Solgaard, F. Ho, J. I. Thackara, and D. M. Bloom, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 2500 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Thio, T.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, Nature (London) 391, 667 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, D. E. Grupp, T. W. Ebbesen, and H. J. Lezec, Phys. Rev. B 58, 6779 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ulrich, R.

R. Ulrich, Infrared Phys. 7, 37 (1967)L. C. Botten, R. C. McPhedran, and J. M. Lamarre, Int. J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 6, 511 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.

Y. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2759 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ward, C. A.

Wolff, P. A.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, Nature (London) 391, 667 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wood, R. W.

R. W. Wood, Philos. Mag. 4, 396 (1902)Phys. Rev. 48, 928 (1935).
[CrossRef]

Yeatman, E. M.

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

Y. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2759 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Evans and D. G. Hall, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 212 (1990).
[CrossRef]

O. Solgaard, F. Ho, J. I. Thackara, and D. M. Bloom, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 2500 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Infrared Phys. (1)

R. Ulrich, Infrared Phys. 7, 37 (1967)L. C. Botten, R. C. McPhedran, and J. M. Lamarre, Int. J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 6, 511 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Nature (London) (1)

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, Nature (London) 391, 667 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Philos. Mag. (1)

R. W. Wood, Philos. Mag. 4, 396 (1902)Phys. Rev. 48, 928 (1935).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. (1)

H. A. Bethe, Phys. Rev. 66, 163 (1944).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, D. E. Grupp, T. W. Ebbesen, and H. J. Lezec, Phys. Rev. B 58, 6779 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1988).

A. D. Boardman, ed., Electromagnetic Surface Modes (Wiley, New York, 1982).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Zero-order transmission spectra θ=0 of perforated silver films on quartz and sapphire substrates; for both, a0=600 nm and d=150 nm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Transmission spectra θ=0 of chromium film with a0=1000 nm, t=100 nm, and d=700 nm with a LC cell, at various values of Vpp. Inset, time-dependent-transmission induced by square-wave modulation at 1  kHz.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Transmission (gray scale) as a function of photon energy and incident angle θ of a silver film with t=300 nm, a0=400 nm, and d=150 nm and provided with a LC to match nd of the quartz substrate. Cuts through the data (horizontal lines) are shown in the inset for λ=635, 532  nm.

Equations (1)

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λmaxi,j=a0i2+j2ϵmϵdϵm+ϵd1/2,λmini,j=a0i2+j2ϵd.

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