Abstract

By varying the chirp of high-intensity pulses, we can use the chirp-condition-dependent fluorescence yield to distinguish among different molecules or the same molecule in different microenvironments. As an example of the latter we show that SNAFL-2, a well-known pH-sensitive dye, shows large modulation in fluorescence yield in response to both variation in acidity and variation in chirp condition. Future application of this technique as a novel contrast mechanism within fluorescence microscopy is discussed.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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  1. N. Tang and R. L. Sutherland, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 3412 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  3. E. T. J. Nibbering, D. A. Wiersma, and K. Duppen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 514 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. B. Broers, H. B. van Linden van den Heuvell, and L. D. Noordam, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2062 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. J. Cao and K. R. Wilson, J. Chem. Phys. 107, 1441 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  6. C. J. Bardeen, J. Che, K. R. Wilson, V. V. Yakovlev, V. A. Apkarian, C. C. Martens, R. Zadoyan, B. Kohler, and M. Messina, J. Chem. Phys. 106, 8486 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. G. Cerullo, C. J. Bardeen, Q. Wang, and C. V. Shank, Chem. Phys. Lett. 262, 362 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  9. C. J. Bardeen, V. V. Yakovlev, K. R. Wilson, S. D. Carpenter, P. M. Weber, and W. S. Warren, Chem. Phys. Lett. 280, 151 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. Cao, C. J. Bardeen, and K. R. Wilson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 1406 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  11. R. P. Haugland, in Handbook of Fluorescent Probes and Research Chemicals, 6th ed., M. T. Z. Spence, ed. (Molecular Probes, Eugene, Ore., 1996), p. 551.
  12. Similar experiments with several Rhodamine dyes (Rh123, Rh590, Rh6G, RhB) in various solvents (water, methanol, ethanol) show that the chirp dependence of the fluorescence yield is a general phenomenon.
  13. M. Müller, J. Squier, R. Wolleschensky, U. Simon, and G. J. Brakenhoff, J. Microsc. 191, 141 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  14. S. W. Hell and J. Wichmann, Opt. Lett. 19, 780 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. J. R. Lakowicz, I. Gryczynski, V. Bogdanov, and J. Kusba, J. Phys. Chem. 98, 334 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  16. E. D. Potter, J. L. Herek, S. Pedersen, Q. Liu, and A. H. Zewail, Nature (London) 355, 66 (1992).
    [CrossRef]

1998 (2)

J. Cao, C. J. Bardeen, and K. R. Wilson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 1406 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Müller, J. Squier, R. Wolleschensky, U. Simon, and G. J. Brakenhoff, J. Microsc. 191, 141 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (4)

J. Cao and K. R. Wilson, J. Chem. Phys. 107, 1441 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Bardeen, J. Che, K. R. Wilson, V. V. Yakovlev, V. A. Apkarian, C. C. Martens, R. Zadoyan, B. Kohler, and M. Messina, J. Chem. Phys. 106, 8486 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Bardeen, V. V. Yakovlev, K. R. Wilson, S. D. Carpenter, P. M. Weber, and W. S. Warren, Chem. Phys. Lett. 280, 151 (1997).
[CrossRef]

N. Tang and R. L. Sutherland, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 3412 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

G. Cerullo, C. J. Bardeen, Q. Wang, and C. V. Shank, Chem. Phys. Lett. 262, 362 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

C. J. Bardeen, Q. Wang, and C. V. Shank, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 3410 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (2)

J. R. Lakowicz, I. Gryczynski, V. Bogdanov, and J. Kusba, J. Phys. Chem. 98, 334 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Hell and J. Wichmann, Opt. Lett. 19, 780 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (4)

E. D. Potter, J. L. Herek, S. Pedersen, Q. Liu, and A. H. Zewail, Nature (London) 355, 66 (1992).
[CrossRef]

B. Broers, H. B. van Linden van den Heuvell, and L. D. Noordam, Opt. Commun. 91, 57 (1992).
[CrossRef]

E. T. J. Nibbering, D. A. Wiersma, and K. Duppen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 514 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Broers, H. B. van Linden van den Heuvell, and L. D. Noordam, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2062 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Apkarian, V. A.

C. J. Bardeen, J. Che, K. R. Wilson, V. V. Yakovlev, V. A. Apkarian, C. C. Martens, R. Zadoyan, B. Kohler, and M. Messina, J. Chem. Phys. 106, 8486 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bardeen, C. J.

J. Cao, C. J. Bardeen, and K. R. Wilson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 1406 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Bardeen, J. Che, K. R. Wilson, V. V. Yakovlev, V. A. Apkarian, C. C. Martens, R. Zadoyan, B. Kohler, and M. Messina, J. Chem. Phys. 106, 8486 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Bardeen, V. V. Yakovlev, K. R. Wilson, S. D. Carpenter, P. M. Weber, and W. S. Warren, Chem. Phys. Lett. 280, 151 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. Cerullo, C. J. Bardeen, Q. Wang, and C. V. Shank, Chem. Phys. Lett. 262, 362 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Bardeen, Q. Wang, and C. V. Shank, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 3410 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bogdanov, V.

J. R. Lakowicz, I. Gryczynski, V. Bogdanov, and J. Kusba, J. Phys. Chem. 98, 334 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Brakenhoff, G. J.

M. Müller, J. Squier, R. Wolleschensky, U. Simon, and G. J. Brakenhoff, J. Microsc. 191, 141 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Broers, B.

B. Broers, H. B. van Linden van den Heuvell, and L. D. Noordam, Opt. Commun. 91, 57 (1992).
[CrossRef]

B. Broers, H. B. van Linden van den Heuvell, and L. D. Noordam, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2062 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cao, J.

J. Cao, C. J. Bardeen, and K. R. Wilson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 1406 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Cao and K. R. Wilson, J. Chem. Phys. 107, 1441 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Carpenter, S. D.

C. J. Bardeen, V. V. Yakovlev, K. R. Wilson, S. D. Carpenter, P. M. Weber, and W. S. Warren, Chem. Phys. Lett. 280, 151 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Cerullo, G.

G. Cerullo, C. J. Bardeen, Q. Wang, and C. V. Shank, Chem. Phys. Lett. 262, 362 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Che, J.

C. J. Bardeen, J. Che, K. R. Wilson, V. V. Yakovlev, V. A. Apkarian, C. C. Martens, R. Zadoyan, B. Kohler, and M. Messina, J. Chem. Phys. 106, 8486 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Duppen, K.

E. T. J. Nibbering, D. A. Wiersma, and K. Duppen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 514 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gryczynski, I.

J. R. Lakowicz, I. Gryczynski, V. Bogdanov, and J. Kusba, J. Phys. Chem. 98, 334 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Haugland, R. P.

R. P. Haugland, in Handbook of Fluorescent Probes and Research Chemicals, 6th ed., M. T. Z. Spence, ed. (Molecular Probes, Eugene, Ore., 1996), p. 551.

Hell, S. W.

Herek, J. L.

E. D. Potter, J. L. Herek, S. Pedersen, Q. Liu, and A. H. Zewail, Nature (London) 355, 66 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kohler, B.

C. J. Bardeen, J. Che, K. R. Wilson, V. V. Yakovlev, V. A. Apkarian, C. C. Martens, R. Zadoyan, B. Kohler, and M. Messina, J. Chem. Phys. 106, 8486 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kusba, J.

J. R. Lakowicz, I. Gryczynski, V. Bogdanov, and J. Kusba, J. Phys. Chem. 98, 334 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lakowicz, J. R.

J. R. Lakowicz, I. Gryczynski, V. Bogdanov, and J. Kusba, J. Phys. Chem. 98, 334 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Q.

E. D. Potter, J. L. Herek, S. Pedersen, Q. Liu, and A. H. Zewail, Nature (London) 355, 66 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Martens, C. C.

C. J. Bardeen, J. Che, K. R. Wilson, V. V. Yakovlev, V. A. Apkarian, C. C. Martens, R. Zadoyan, B. Kohler, and M. Messina, J. Chem. Phys. 106, 8486 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Messina, M.

C. J. Bardeen, J. Che, K. R. Wilson, V. V. Yakovlev, V. A. Apkarian, C. C. Martens, R. Zadoyan, B. Kohler, and M. Messina, J. Chem. Phys. 106, 8486 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Müller, M.

M. Müller, J. Squier, R. Wolleschensky, U. Simon, and G. J. Brakenhoff, J. Microsc. 191, 141 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nibbering, E. T. J.

E. T. J. Nibbering, D. A. Wiersma, and K. Duppen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 514 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Noordam, L. D.

B. Broers, H. B. van Linden van den Heuvell, and L. D. Noordam, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2062 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Broers, H. B. van Linden van den Heuvell, and L. D. Noordam, Opt. Commun. 91, 57 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Pedersen, S.

E. D. Potter, J. L. Herek, S. Pedersen, Q. Liu, and A. H. Zewail, Nature (London) 355, 66 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Potter, E. D.

E. D. Potter, J. L. Herek, S. Pedersen, Q. Liu, and A. H. Zewail, Nature (London) 355, 66 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Shank, C. V.

G. Cerullo, C. J. Bardeen, Q. Wang, and C. V. Shank, Chem. Phys. Lett. 262, 362 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Bardeen, Q. Wang, and C. V. Shank, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 3410 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Simon, U.

M. Müller, J. Squier, R. Wolleschensky, U. Simon, and G. J. Brakenhoff, J. Microsc. 191, 141 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Squier, J.

M. Müller, J. Squier, R. Wolleschensky, U. Simon, and G. J. Brakenhoff, J. Microsc. 191, 141 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sutherland, R. L.

Tang, N.

van Linden van den Heuvell, H. B.

B. Broers, H. B. van Linden van den Heuvell, and L. D. Noordam, Opt. Commun. 91, 57 (1992).
[CrossRef]

B. Broers, H. B. van Linden van den Heuvell, and L. D. Noordam, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2062 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Q.

G. Cerullo, C. J. Bardeen, Q. Wang, and C. V. Shank, Chem. Phys. Lett. 262, 362 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Bardeen, Q. Wang, and C. V. Shank, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 3410 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Warren, W. S.

C. J. Bardeen, V. V. Yakovlev, K. R. Wilson, S. D. Carpenter, P. M. Weber, and W. S. Warren, Chem. Phys. Lett. 280, 151 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Weber, P. M.

C. J. Bardeen, V. V. Yakovlev, K. R. Wilson, S. D. Carpenter, P. M. Weber, and W. S. Warren, Chem. Phys. Lett. 280, 151 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wichmann, J.

Wiersma, D. A.

E. T. J. Nibbering, D. A. Wiersma, and K. Duppen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 514 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilson, K. R.

J. Cao, C. J. Bardeen, and K. R. Wilson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 1406 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Bardeen, J. Che, K. R. Wilson, V. V. Yakovlev, V. A. Apkarian, C. C. Martens, R. Zadoyan, B. Kohler, and M. Messina, J. Chem. Phys. 106, 8486 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Cao and K. R. Wilson, J. Chem. Phys. 107, 1441 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Bardeen, V. V. Yakovlev, K. R. Wilson, S. D. Carpenter, P. M. Weber, and W. S. Warren, Chem. Phys. Lett. 280, 151 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wolleschensky, R.

M. Müller, J. Squier, R. Wolleschensky, U. Simon, and G. J. Brakenhoff, J. Microsc. 191, 141 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yakovlev, V. V.

C. J. Bardeen, V. V. Yakovlev, K. R. Wilson, S. D. Carpenter, P. M. Weber, and W. S. Warren, Chem. Phys. Lett. 280, 151 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Bardeen, J. Che, K. R. Wilson, V. V. Yakovlev, V. A. Apkarian, C. C. Martens, R. Zadoyan, B. Kohler, and M. Messina, J. Chem. Phys. 106, 8486 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zadoyan, R.

C. J. Bardeen, J. Che, K. R. Wilson, V. V. Yakovlev, V. A. Apkarian, C. C. Martens, R. Zadoyan, B. Kohler, and M. Messina, J. Chem. Phys. 106, 8486 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zewail, A. H.

E. D. Potter, J. L. Herek, S. Pedersen, Q. Liu, and A. H. Zewail, Nature (London) 355, 66 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (2)

G. Cerullo, C. J. Bardeen, Q. Wang, and C. V. Shank, Chem. Phys. Lett. 262, 362 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Bardeen, V. V. Yakovlev, K. R. Wilson, S. D. Carpenter, P. M. Weber, and W. S. Warren, Chem. Phys. Lett. 280, 151 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (2)

J. Cao and K. R. Wilson, J. Chem. Phys. 107, 1441 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Bardeen, J. Che, K. R. Wilson, V. V. Yakovlev, V. A. Apkarian, C. C. Martens, R. Zadoyan, B. Kohler, and M. Messina, J. Chem. Phys. 106, 8486 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Microsc. (1)

M. Müller, J. Squier, R. Wolleschensky, U. Simon, and G. J. Brakenhoff, J. Microsc. 191, 141 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Phys. Chem. (1)

J. R. Lakowicz, I. Gryczynski, V. Bogdanov, and J. Kusba, J. Phys. Chem. 98, 334 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Nature (London) (1)

E. D. Potter, J. L. Herek, S. Pedersen, Q. Liu, and A. H. Zewail, Nature (London) 355, 66 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

B. Broers, H. B. van Linden van den Heuvell, and L. D. Noordam, Opt. Commun. 91, 57 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (4)

E. T. J. Nibbering, D. A. Wiersma, and K. Duppen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 514 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Broers, H. B. van Linden van den Heuvell, and L. D. Noordam, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2062 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. J. Bardeen, Q. Wang, and C. V. Shank, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 3410 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Cao, C. J. Bardeen, and K. R. Wilson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 1406 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

R. P. Haugland, in Handbook of Fluorescent Probes and Research Chemicals, 6th ed., M. T. Z. Spence, ed. (Molecular Probes, Eugene, Ore., 1996), p. 551.

Similar experiments with several Rhodamine dyes (Rh123, Rh590, Rh6G, RhB) in various solvents (water, methanol, ethanol) show that the chirp dependence of the fluorescence yield is a general phenomenon.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic layout of the experimental setup.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Fluorescence intensity (normalized with respect to the fluorescence emission from the volume excited by the unchirped pulse; see text) as a function of chirp, measured for SNAFL-2 dissolved in four solvents with different pH values.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Ratio of fluorescence emissions at 5000 and -5000 fs2 as a function of pH.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Excitation spectra of SNAFL-2 for four different pH values (fluorescence detection at 620  nm). The shaded area depicts the excitation spectrum.

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