Abstract

The saturation properties of terahertz emission from biased, large-aperture photoconductors excited by trains of amplified femtosecond optical pulses are presented. A direct comparison is made of the multiple-pulse saturation properties of terahertz emission from semi-insulating GaAs and low-temperature-grown GaAs emitters with different carrier lifetimes. When the carrier lifetime is less than or comparable with the interpulse spacing, a significant enhancement of the narrow-band terahertz output is observed. The enhancement is not observed for emitters with long carrier lifetimes, consistent with the results of a previously derived saturation theory [Opt.  Lett.  18, 1340 (1993)].

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. T. Darrow, X.-C. Zhang, D. H. Auston, and J. D. Morse, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2291 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  2. P. G. Huggard, J. A. Cluff, C. J. Shaw, S. R. Andrews, E. H. Linfield, and D. A. Ritchie, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2647 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  3. N. M. Froberg, B. B. Hu, X.-C. Zhang, and D. H. Auston, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 768 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. S. Weling, B. B. Hu, N. M. Froberg, and D. H. Auston, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 137 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  5. Y. Liu, S.-G. Park, and A. M. Weiner, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 709 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  6. C. Messner, M. Sailer, H. Kostner, and R. A. Hopfel, Appl. Phys. B 64, 619 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  7. C. W. Siders, J. L. W. Siders, A. J. Taylor, S.-G. Park, and A. M. Weiner, Appl. Opt. 37, 5302 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. J. Taylor, P. K. Benicewicz, and S. M. Young, Opt. Lett. 18, 1340 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. R. Melloch, D. D. Nolte, J. C. P. Change, D. B. Janes, and E. S. Harmon, Crit. Rev. Solid State Mater. Sci. 21, 189 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. J. Taylor, G. Rodriguez, and D. I. Some, Opt. Lett. 22, 715 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998

1997

C. Messner, M. Sailer, H. Kostner, and R. A. Hopfel, Appl. Phys. B 64, 619 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. G. Huggard, J. A. Cluff, C. J. Shaw, S. R. Andrews, E. H. Linfield, and D. A. Ritchie, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2647 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Taylor, G. Rodriguez, and D. I. Some, Opt. Lett. 22, 715 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996

M. R. Melloch, D. D. Nolte, J. C. P. Change, D. B. Janes, and E. S. Harmon, Crit. Rev. Solid State Mater. Sci. 21, 189 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liu, S.-G. Park, and A. M. Weiner, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 709 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994

A. S. Weling, B. B. Hu, N. M. Froberg, and D. H. Auston, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 137 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

1992

J. T. Darrow, X.-C. Zhang, D. H. Auston, and J. D. Morse, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2291 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991

N. M. Froberg, B. B. Hu, X.-C. Zhang, and D. H. Auston, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 768 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Andrews, S. R.

P. G. Huggard, J. A. Cluff, C. J. Shaw, S. R. Andrews, E. H. Linfield, and D. A. Ritchie, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2647 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Auston, D. H.

A. S. Weling, B. B. Hu, N. M. Froberg, and D. H. Auston, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 137 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Darrow, X.-C. Zhang, D. H. Auston, and J. D. Morse, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2291 (1992).
[CrossRef]

N. M. Froberg, B. B. Hu, X.-C. Zhang, and D. H. Auston, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 768 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Benicewicz, P. K.

Change, J. C. P.

M. R. Melloch, D. D. Nolte, J. C. P. Change, D. B. Janes, and E. S. Harmon, Crit. Rev. Solid State Mater. Sci. 21, 189 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Cluff, J. A.

P. G. Huggard, J. A. Cluff, C. J. Shaw, S. R. Andrews, E. H. Linfield, and D. A. Ritchie, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2647 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Darrow, J. T.

J. T. Darrow, X.-C. Zhang, D. H. Auston, and J. D. Morse, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2291 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Froberg, N. M.

A. S. Weling, B. B. Hu, N. M. Froberg, and D. H. Auston, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 137 (1994).
[CrossRef]

N. M. Froberg, B. B. Hu, X.-C. Zhang, and D. H. Auston, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 768 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Harmon, E. S.

M. R. Melloch, D. D. Nolte, J. C. P. Change, D. B. Janes, and E. S. Harmon, Crit. Rev. Solid State Mater. Sci. 21, 189 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hopfel, R. A.

C. Messner, M. Sailer, H. Kostner, and R. A. Hopfel, Appl. Phys. B 64, 619 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hu, B. B.

A. S. Weling, B. B. Hu, N. M. Froberg, and D. H. Auston, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 137 (1994).
[CrossRef]

N. M. Froberg, B. B. Hu, X.-C. Zhang, and D. H. Auston, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 768 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Huggard, P. G.

P. G. Huggard, J. A. Cluff, C. J. Shaw, S. R. Andrews, E. H. Linfield, and D. A. Ritchie, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2647 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Janes, D. B.

M. R. Melloch, D. D. Nolte, J. C. P. Change, D. B. Janes, and E. S. Harmon, Crit. Rev. Solid State Mater. Sci. 21, 189 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kostner, H.

C. Messner, M. Sailer, H. Kostner, and R. A. Hopfel, Appl. Phys. B 64, 619 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Linfield, E. H.

P. G. Huggard, J. A. Cluff, C. J. Shaw, S. R. Andrews, E. H. Linfield, and D. A. Ritchie, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2647 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

Y. Liu, S.-G. Park, and A. M. Weiner, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 709 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Melloch, M. R.

M. R. Melloch, D. D. Nolte, J. C. P. Change, D. B. Janes, and E. S. Harmon, Crit. Rev. Solid State Mater. Sci. 21, 189 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Messner, C.

C. Messner, M. Sailer, H. Kostner, and R. A. Hopfel, Appl. Phys. B 64, 619 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Morse, J. D.

J. T. Darrow, X.-C. Zhang, D. H. Auston, and J. D. Morse, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2291 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Nolte, D. D.

M. R. Melloch, D. D. Nolte, J. C. P. Change, D. B. Janes, and E. S. Harmon, Crit. Rev. Solid State Mater. Sci. 21, 189 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Park, S.-G.

C. W. Siders, J. L. W. Siders, A. J. Taylor, S.-G. Park, and A. M. Weiner, Appl. Opt. 37, 5302 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liu, S.-G. Park, and A. M. Weiner, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 709 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ritchie, D. A.

P. G. Huggard, J. A. Cluff, C. J. Shaw, S. R. Andrews, E. H. Linfield, and D. A. Ritchie, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2647 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rodriguez, G.

Sailer, M.

C. Messner, M. Sailer, H. Kostner, and R. A. Hopfel, Appl. Phys. B 64, 619 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Shaw, C. J.

P. G. Huggard, J. A. Cluff, C. J. Shaw, S. R. Andrews, E. H. Linfield, and D. A. Ritchie, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2647 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Siders, C. W.

Siders, J. L. W.

Some, D. I.

Taylor, A. J.

Weiner, A. M.

C. W. Siders, J. L. W. Siders, A. J. Taylor, S.-G. Park, and A. M. Weiner, Appl. Opt. 37, 5302 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liu, S.-G. Park, and A. M. Weiner, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 709 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Weling, A. S.

A. S. Weling, B. B. Hu, N. M. Froberg, and D. H. Auston, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 137 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Young, S. M.

Zhang, X.-C.

J. T. Darrow, X.-C. Zhang, D. H. Auston, and J. D. Morse, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2291 (1992).
[CrossRef]

N. M. Froberg, B. B. Hu, X.-C. Zhang, and D. H. Auston, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 768 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. B

C. Messner, M. Sailer, H. Kostner, and R. A. Hopfel, Appl. Phys. B 64, 619 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

P. G. Huggard, J. A. Cluff, C. J. Shaw, S. R. Andrews, E. H. Linfield, and D. A. Ritchie, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2647 (1997).
[CrossRef]

N. M. Froberg, B. B. Hu, X.-C. Zhang, and D. H. Auston, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 768 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Weling, B. B. Hu, N. M. Froberg, and D. H. Auston, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 137 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Crit. Rev. Solid State Mater. Sci.

M. R. Melloch, D. D. Nolte, J. C. P. Change, D. B. Janes, and E. S. Harmon, Crit. Rev. Solid State Mater. Sci. 21, 189 (1996).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

J. T. Darrow, X.-C. Zhang, D. H. Auston, and J. D. Morse, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2291 (1992).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

Y. Liu, S.-G. Park, and A. M. Weiner, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 709 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

THz waveforms measured from (a)–(c) SI-GaAs and (d)–(f) LT-GaAs (annealed at 600 °C) emitters for (a), (d) single-pulse excitation and for eight-pulse excitation in the (b), (e) low-, 20μJ/cm2, and (c), (f) high-, 500μJ/cm2, fluence regimes. The waveforms are indi-vidually normalized.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Power spectral density at the fundamental frequency of 0.3  THz versus total optical fluence for (a) LT-GaAs and (b) SI-GaAs emitters excited by a single pulse, a four-pulse train, and an eight-pulse train. Power spectral density versus total optical fluence and (c) single-pulse excitation and (d) eight-pulse excitation for a SI-GaAs emitter and three LT-GaAs emitters that yield carrier lifetimes 1/e at the highest fluences of <1, 2, and 3  ps following annealing at 575, 600, and 625 °C, respectively. For all curves at low fluences a slope of 2 is observed, indicating that the emission is unsaturated.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Peak amplitude of the second emitted THz pulse versus interpulse separation for a SI-GaAs emitter and three LT-GaAs emitters annealed at the three temperatures indicated.

Equations (1)

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Et=Adσt/dt1+aσt-2,

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