Abstract

A single pulsed laser beam containing multiple wavelengths (wavelength multiplexing) is employed to activate two semiconductor antennas in series. The dielectric nature of the semiconductors permits serial cascading of the antenna elements. Recently observed nonlinear characteristics of the radiated field as a function of the free carrier accelerating (bias) voltage are used to minimize the small interactions between elements. We demonstrate that the temporal electromagnetic radiation distribution of two serial antennas is sensitive to the three-dimensional pattern of the optical excitation source. One can, in turn, vary this distribution continuously by optical means to reconfigure the array.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. A. Gilbert and G. T. Pirrung, presented at the Sixth Annual ARPA Symposium on Photonic Systems for Antenna Applications, Monterey, Calif., March 4–7, 1996.
  2. H. Zmuda and E. N. Toughlian, Photonic Aspects of Modern Radar (Artech House, Norwood, Mass., 1994).
  3. Ch. Fattinger and D. Grischkowsky, Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 490 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  4. X.-C. Zhang and D. H. Auston, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 768 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  5. D. W. Liu, J. B. Thaxter, and D. F. Bliss, Opt. Lett. 20, 1544 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. D. Liu, D. Charette, M. Bergeron, H. Karwacki, S. Adams, and B. Lanning, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 716 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  7. D. W. Liu, P. H. Carr, and J. B. Thaxter, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 815 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  8. E. Marengo, A. J. Devaney, and E. Heyman, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 45, 1098 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  9. E. Marengo, A. J. Devaney, and E. Heyman, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 46, 243 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. M. Sze, Physics of Semiconductor Devices, 2nd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1981), pp. 638–651.
  11. G. M. Wysin, D. L. Smith, and A. Redondo, Phys. Rev. B 38, 12514 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. T. Darrow, X.-C. Zhang, D. H. Auston, and J. D. Morse, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1607 (1992).
    [CrossRef]

1998

D. Liu, D. Charette, M. Bergeron, H. Karwacki, S. Adams, and B. Lanning, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 716 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

E. Marengo, A. J. Devaney, and E. Heyman, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 45, 1098 (1997).
[CrossRef]

E. Marengo, A. J. Devaney, and E. Heyman, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 46, 243 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

D. W. Liu, P. H. Carr, and J. B. Thaxter, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 815 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

1992

J. T. Darrow, X.-C. Zhang, D. H. Auston, and J. D. Morse, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1607 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991

X.-C. Zhang and D. H. Auston, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 768 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1989

Ch. Fattinger and D. Grischkowsky, Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 490 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988

G. M. Wysin, D. L. Smith, and A. Redondo, Phys. Rev. B 38, 12514 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Adams, S.

D. Liu, D. Charette, M. Bergeron, H. Karwacki, S. Adams, and B. Lanning, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 716 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Auston, D. H.

J. T. Darrow, X.-C. Zhang, D. H. Auston, and J. D. Morse, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1607 (1992).
[CrossRef]

X.-C. Zhang and D. H. Auston, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 768 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Bergeron, M.

D. Liu, D. Charette, M. Bergeron, H. Karwacki, S. Adams, and B. Lanning, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 716 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bliss, D. F.

Carr, P. H.

D. W. Liu, P. H. Carr, and J. B. Thaxter, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 815 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Charette, D.

D. Liu, D. Charette, M. Bergeron, H. Karwacki, S. Adams, and B. Lanning, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 716 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Darrow, J. T.

J. T. Darrow, X.-C. Zhang, D. H. Auston, and J. D. Morse, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1607 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Devaney, A. J.

E. Marengo, A. J. Devaney, and E. Heyman, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 46, 243 (1997).
[CrossRef]

E. Marengo, A. J. Devaney, and E. Heyman, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 45, 1098 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fattinger, Ch.

Ch. Fattinger and D. Grischkowsky, Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 490 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Gilbert, R. A.

R. A. Gilbert and G. T. Pirrung, presented at the Sixth Annual ARPA Symposium on Photonic Systems for Antenna Applications, Monterey, Calif., March 4–7, 1996.

Grischkowsky, D.

Ch. Fattinger and D. Grischkowsky, Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 490 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Heyman, E.

E. Marengo, A. J. Devaney, and E. Heyman, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 45, 1098 (1997).
[CrossRef]

E. Marengo, A. J. Devaney, and E. Heyman, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 46, 243 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Karwacki, H.

D. Liu, D. Charette, M. Bergeron, H. Karwacki, S. Adams, and B. Lanning, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 716 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lanning, B.

D. Liu, D. Charette, M. Bergeron, H. Karwacki, S. Adams, and B. Lanning, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 716 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Liu, D.

D. Liu, D. Charette, M. Bergeron, H. Karwacki, S. Adams, and B. Lanning, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 716 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Liu, D. W.

D. W. Liu, P. H. Carr, and J. B. Thaxter, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 815 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. W. Liu, J. B. Thaxter, and D. F. Bliss, Opt. Lett. 20, 1544 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marengo, E.

E. Marengo, A. J. Devaney, and E. Heyman, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 46, 243 (1997).
[CrossRef]

E. Marengo, A. J. Devaney, and E. Heyman, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 45, 1098 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Morse, J. D.

J. T. Darrow, X.-C. Zhang, D. H. Auston, and J. D. Morse, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1607 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Pirrung, G. T.

R. A. Gilbert and G. T. Pirrung, presented at the Sixth Annual ARPA Symposium on Photonic Systems for Antenna Applications, Monterey, Calif., March 4–7, 1996.

Redondo, A.

G. M. Wysin, D. L. Smith, and A. Redondo, Phys. Rev. B 38, 12514 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Smith, D. L.

G. M. Wysin, D. L. Smith, and A. Redondo, Phys. Rev. B 38, 12514 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Sze, S. M.

S. M. Sze, Physics of Semiconductor Devices, 2nd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1981), pp. 638–651.

Thaxter, J. B.

D. W. Liu, P. H. Carr, and J. B. Thaxter, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 815 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. W. Liu, J. B. Thaxter, and D. F. Bliss, Opt. Lett. 20, 1544 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Toughlian, E. N.

H. Zmuda and E. N. Toughlian, Photonic Aspects of Modern Radar (Artech House, Norwood, Mass., 1994).

Wysin, G. M.

G. M. Wysin, D. L. Smith, and A. Redondo, Phys. Rev. B 38, 12514 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.-C.

J. T. Darrow, X.-C. Zhang, D. H. Auston, and J. D. Morse, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1607 (1992).
[CrossRef]

X.-C. Zhang and D. H. Auston, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 768 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Zmuda, H.

H. Zmuda and E. N. Toughlian, Photonic Aspects of Modern Radar (Artech House, Norwood, Mass., 1994).

Appl. Phys. Lett.

Ch. Fattinger and D. Grischkowsky, Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 490 (1989).
[CrossRef]

X.-C. Zhang and D. H. Auston, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 768 (1991).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

J. T. Darrow, X.-C. Zhang, D. H. Auston, and J. D. Morse, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1607 (1992).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

D. Liu, D. Charette, M. Bergeron, H. Karwacki, S. Adams, and B. Lanning, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 716 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. W. Liu, P. H. Carr, and J. B. Thaxter, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 815 (1996).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag.

E. Marengo, A. J. Devaney, and E. Heyman, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 45, 1098 (1997).
[CrossRef]

E. Marengo, A. J. Devaney, and E. Heyman, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 46, 243 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. B

G. M. Wysin, D. L. Smith, and A. Redondo, Phys. Rev. B 38, 12514 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Other

R. A. Gilbert and G. T. Pirrung, presented at the Sixth Annual ARPA Symposium on Photonic Systems for Antenna Applications, Monterey, Calif., March 4–7, 1996.

H. Zmuda and E. N. Toughlian, Photonic Aspects of Modern Radar (Artech House, Norwood, Mass., 1994).

S. M. Sze, Physics of Semiconductor Devices, 2nd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1981), pp. 638–651.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Laser-induced phased picosecond EM source series configuration for two-color laser source exciting two EM radiating elements.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

EM field amplitude as a function of the bias field for GaAs and InP with the optical fluence at 0.3 J/cm2. Two curves are scaled to have a same radiation field magnitude at the bias field of 12 kV/cm.7

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Typical nonlinear behavior of the radiation power versus the bias field for the III–V photoconductive antenna. The shift of the actual bias from Eb to Eb owing to other arriving EM pulses will cause only insignificant disturbance since Er (radiation field) is nearly equal to Er. Thus the coupling among the photoconductive antenna elements is minimal.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Polar plot of the EM radiation pattern produced by a single-beam dual-wavelength laser source. Two patterns are scaled to have the same boresight gain. EM radiation beam-width narrowing was observed. The cos2θ plot is shown for comparison.

Equations (1)

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Eteν1-Rω-tdtIoptexpt-tτr,

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