Abstract

We predict the existence of a new pulsed-laser operation regime, when the phases and polarizations of the two coupled cold-cavity eigenstates of a monomode solid-state laser are taken into account in the derivation of the Maxwell–Bloch equations. This monomode pulsed regime is experimentally observed, without any normal mode locking or Q switching occurring inside the cavity. We obtain close agreement between experiments and theory, even in the simple case of a Nd:YAG microchip laser, for which sech2 pulses at nearly megahertz repetition rates are readily observed.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science, Mill Valley, Calif., 1986).
  2. M. Sargent, M. O. Scully, and W. E. Lamb, Laser Physics (Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1974), Chap. 9.
  3. B. E. Bouma and J. G. Fujimoto, Opt. Lett. 21, 134 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. P. D. Drummond, J. D. Harvey, J. M. Dudley, D. B. Hirst, and S. J. Carter, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 836 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. P. M. Green, D. Udaiyan, G. J. Crofts, D. H. Kim, and M. J. Damzen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3533 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. D. E. McCumber, Phys. Rev. 141, 306 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  7. P. Mandel, K. Otsuka, J.-Y. Wang, and D. Pieroux, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 2694 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. A. Hohl, A. Gavrielides, T. Erneux, and V. Kovanis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 4745 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  9. K. S. Thornburg, M. Möller, R. Roy, T. W. Carr, R. D. Li, and T. Erneux, Phys. Rev. E 55, 3865 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. Möller, B. Forsmann, and W. Lange, in International Quantum Electronics Conference, Vol. 7 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), p. 117.
  11. M. Brunnel, M. Vallet, A. Le Floch, and F. Bretenaker, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2070 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. Brunel, O. Emile, M. Alouini, A. Le Floch, and F. Bretenaker, “Experimental and theoretical study of longitudinally monomode vectorial solid-state lasers,” Phys. Rev. A (to be published).
  13. H. Zeghlache and A. Boulnois, Phys. Rev. A 52, 4229 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. P. Mandel, C. Etrich, and K. Otsuka, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 836 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  15. L. A. Lugiato, K. Wang, and Y. Sun, Opt. Commun. 105, 397 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  16. J. J. Zayhowski, Opt. Lett. 14, 24 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997

P. D. Drummond, J. D. Harvey, J. M. Dudley, D. B. Hirst, and S. J. Carter, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 836 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Hohl, A. Gavrielides, T. Erneux, and V. Kovanis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 4745 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. S. Thornburg, M. Möller, R. Roy, T. W. Carr, R. D. Li, and T. Erneux, Phys. Rev. E 55, 3865 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Brunnel, M. Vallet, A. Le Floch, and F. Bretenaker, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2070 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

R. P. M. Green, D. Udaiyan, G. J. Crofts, D. H. Kim, and M. J. Damzen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3533 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. E. Bouma and J. G. Fujimoto, Opt. Lett. 21, 134 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Mandel, K. Otsuka, J.-Y. Wang, and D. Pieroux, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 2694 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995

H. Zeghlache and A. Boulnois, Phys. Rev. A 52, 4229 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994

L. A. Lugiato, K. Wang, and Y. Sun, Opt. Commun. 105, 397 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

P. Mandel, C. Etrich, and K. Otsuka, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 836 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1989

1966

D. E. McCumber, Phys. Rev. 141, 306 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Alouini, M.

M. Brunel, O. Emile, M. Alouini, A. Le Floch, and F. Bretenaker, “Experimental and theoretical study of longitudinally monomode vectorial solid-state lasers,” Phys. Rev. A (to be published).

Boulnois, A.

H. Zeghlache and A. Boulnois, Phys. Rev. A 52, 4229 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bouma, B. E.

Bretenaker, F.

M. Brunnel, M. Vallet, A. Le Floch, and F. Bretenaker, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2070 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Brunel, O. Emile, M. Alouini, A. Le Floch, and F. Bretenaker, “Experimental and theoretical study of longitudinally monomode vectorial solid-state lasers,” Phys. Rev. A (to be published).

Brunel, M.

M. Brunel, O. Emile, M. Alouini, A. Le Floch, and F. Bretenaker, “Experimental and theoretical study of longitudinally monomode vectorial solid-state lasers,” Phys. Rev. A (to be published).

Brunnel, M.

M. Brunnel, M. Vallet, A. Le Floch, and F. Bretenaker, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2070 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Carr, T. W.

K. S. Thornburg, M. Möller, R. Roy, T. W. Carr, R. D. Li, and T. Erneux, Phys. Rev. E 55, 3865 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Carter, S. J.

P. D. Drummond, J. D. Harvey, J. M. Dudley, D. B. Hirst, and S. J. Carter, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 836 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Crofts, G. J.

R. P. M. Green, D. Udaiyan, G. J. Crofts, D. H. Kim, and M. J. Damzen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3533 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Damzen, M. J.

R. P. M. Green, D. Udaiyan, G. J. Crofts, D. H. Kim, and M. J. Damzen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3533 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Drummond, P. D.

P. D. Drummond, J. D. Harvey, J. M. Dudley, D. B. Hirst, and S. J. Carter, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 836 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Dudley, J. M.

P. D. Drummond, J. D. Harvey, J. M. Dudley, D. B. Hirst, and S. J. Carter, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 836 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Emile, O.

M. Brunel, O. Emile, M. Alouini, A. Le Floch, and F. Bretenaker, “Experimental and theoretical study of longitudinally monomode vectorial solid-state lasers,” Phys. Rev. A (to be published).

Erneux, T.

K. S. Thornburg, M. Möller, R. Roy, T. W. Carr, R. D. Li, and T. Erneux, Phys. Rev. E 55, 3865 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Hohl, A. Gavrielides, T. Erneux, and V. Kovanis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 4745 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Etrich, C.

P. Mandel, C. Etrich, and K. Otsuka, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 836 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Forsmann, B.

M. Möller, B. Forsmann, and W. Lange, in International Quantum Electronics Conference, Vol. 7 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), p. 117.

Fujimoto, J. G.

Gavrielides, A.

A. Hohl, A. Gavrielides, T. Erneux, and V. Kovanis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 4745 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Green, R. P. M.

R. P. M. Green, D. Udaiyan, G. J. Crofts, D. H. Kim, and M. J. Damzen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3533 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harvey, J. D.

P. D. Drummond, J. D. Harvey, J. M. Dudley, D. B. Hirst, and S. J. Carter, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 836 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hirst, D. B.

P. D. Drummond, J. D. Harvey, J. M. Dudley, D. B. Hirst, and S. J. Carter, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 836 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hohl, A.

A. Hohl, A. Gavrielides, T. Erneux, and V. Kovanis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 4745 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D. H.

R. P. M. Green, D. Udaiyan, G. J. Crofts, D. H. Kim, and M. J. Damzen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3533 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kovanis, V.

A. Hohl, A. Gavrielides, T. Erneux, and V. Kovanis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 4745 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lamb, W. E.

M. Sargent, M. O. Scully, and W. E. Lamb, Laser Physics (Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1974), Chap. 9.

Lange, W.

M. Möller, B. Forsmann, and W. Lange, in International Quantum Electronics Conference, Vol. 7 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), p. 117.

Le Floch, A.

M. Brunnel, M. Vallet, A. Le Floch, and F. Bretenaker, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2070 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Brunel, O. Emile, M. Alouini, A. Le Floch, and F. Bretenaker, “Experimental and theoretical study of longitudinally monomode vectorial solid-state lasers,” Phys. Rev. A (to be published).

Li, R. D.

K. S. Thornburg, M. Möller, R. Roy, T. W. Carr, R. D. Li, and T. Erneux, Phys. Rev. E 55, 3865 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lugiato, L. A.

L. A. Lugiato, K. Wang, and Y. Sun, Opt. Commun. 105, 397 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Mandel, P.

P. Mandel, K. Otsuka, J.-Y. Wang, and D. Pieroux, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 2694 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Mandel, C. Etrich, and K. Otsuka, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 836 (1993).
[CrossRef]

McCumber, D. E.

D. E. McCumber, Phys. Rev. 141, 306 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Möller, M.

K. S. Thornburg, M. Möller, R. Roy, T. W. Carr, R. D. Li, and T. Erneux, Phys. Rev. E 55, 3865 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Möller, B. Forsmann, and W. Lange, in International Quantum Electronics Conference, Vol. 7 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), p. 117.

Otsuka, K.

P. Mandel, K. Otsuka, J.-Y. Wang, and D. Pieroux, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 2694 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Mandel, C. Etrich, and K. Otsuka, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 836 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Pieroux, D.

P. Mandel, K. Otsuka, J.-Y. Wang, and D. Pieroux, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 2694 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roy, R.

K. S. Thornburg, M. Möller, R. Roy, T. W. Carr, R. D. Li, and T. Erneux, Phys. Rev. E 55, 3865 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sargent, M.

M. Sargent, M. O. Scully, and W. E. Lamb, Laser Physics (Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1974), Chap. 9.

Scully, M. O.

M. Sargent, M. O. Scully, and W. E. Lamb, Laser Physics (Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1974), Chap. 9.

Siegman, A. E.

A. E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science, Mill Valley, Calif., 1986).

Sun, Y.

L. A. Lugiato, K. Wang, and Y. Sun, Opt. Commun. 105, 397 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Thornburg, K. S.

K. S. Thornburg, M. Möller, R. Roy, T. W. Carr, R. D. Li, and T. Erneux, Phys. Rev. E 55, 3865 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Udaiyan, D.

R. P. M. Green, D. Udaiyan, G. J. Crofts, D. H. Kim, and M. J. Damzen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3533 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vallet, M.

M. Brunnel, M. Vallet, A. Le Floch, and F. Bretenaker, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2070 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.-Y.

P. Mandel, K. Otsuka, J.-Y. Wang, and D. Pieroux, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 2694 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, K.

L. A. Lugiato, K. Wang, and Y. Sun, Opt. Commun. 105, 397 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Zayhowski, J. J.

Zeghlache, H.

H. Zeghlache and A. Boulnois, Phys. Rev. A 52, 4229 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

M. Brunnel, M. Vallet, A. Le Floch, and F. Bretenaker, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2070 (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

P. Mandel, C. Etrich, and K. Otsuka, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 836 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

L. A. Lugiato, K. Wang, and Y. Sun, Opt. Commun. 105, 397 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev.

D. E. McCumber, Phys. Rev. 141, 306 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A

H. Zeghlache and A. Boulnois, Phys. Rev. A 52, 4229 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. E

K. S. Thornburg, M. Möller, R. Roy, T. W. Carr, R. D. Li, and T. Erneux, Phys. Rev. E 55, 3865 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

P. Mandel, K. Otsuka, J.-Y. Wang, and D. Pieroux, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 2694 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Hohl, A. Gavrielides, T. Erneux, and V. Kovanis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 4745 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. D. Drummond, J. D. Harvey, J. M. Dudley, D. B. Hirst, and S. J. Carter, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 836 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. P. M. Green, D. Udaiyan, G. J. Crofts, D. H. Kim, and M. J. Damzen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3533 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

A. E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science, Mill Valley, Calif., 1986).

M. Sargent, M. O. Scully, and W. E. Lamb, Laser Physics (Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1974), Chap. 9.

M. Möller, B. Forsmann, and W. Lange, in International Quantum Electronics Conference, Vol. 7 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), p. 117.

M. Brunel, O. Emile, M. Alouini, A. Le Floch, and F. Bretenaker, “Experimental and theoretical study of longitudinally monomode vectorial solid-state lasers,” Phys. Rev. A (to be published).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Experimental arrangement. Gain, Nd:YAG crystal; Δφ, xy phase anisotropy; Δt, slightly tilted etalon. (b) Evolution of the angular eigenfrequencies ω+ and ω- of the cold-cavity eigenstates versus phase anisotropy Δφ. ω0=ωx+ωy/2 is the average laser angular frequency. Notice the locking region ΔωL=cΔt/L.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Experimental time evolution of the laser output power observed behind a polarizer oriented along the x axis Ix, at 45° of the x and y axes I45, and along the y axis Iy when ωy-ωx>ΔωL. (b) Experimental power spectrum corresponding to (a). (c), (d) Corresponding theoretical results obtained with η=2.0, Ts=80 ps, 1/γ=230 μs, ωy-ωx/2π=2.6 MHz, ΔωL/2π=100 kHz, ω0/2π=1 MHz, and Γy/0.971=Γx=3.8×107 s-1.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Theoretical evolutions of I45 (solid curve) and of phase Ψ (dashed curve) versus time, obtained with the same parameters as in Fig.  2, except that ωy-ωx/2π=500 kHz and ΔωL/2π=1.24 MHz. (b) Corresponding theoretical spectrum. (c), (d) Corresponding experimental results. Notice the theoretical as well as experimental increase of the laser peak power with respect to the results of Fig.  2.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Experimental time evolution of the microchip laser output power. Repetition rate, 800  kHz; pulse width, 140  ns FWHM.

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ω+-ω-ωy-ωx1-ΔωL2/ωy-ωx21/2.
I·x,y=-Γx,yIx,y+ΔωLIxIycosΨ+2καx,yD0±D1×Ix,y+ϵx,y+2καx,ycosΨ±αx,y˜sinΨD2IxIy,
Ψ·=ωx-ωy-2 ΔωLIx/Iy+Iy/IxsinΨ+καx˜D0+D1-αy˜D0-D1-καxsinΨ-αx˜cosΨIy/Ix-αysinΨ+αy˜cosΨIx/IyD2,
D·0=γP0-D0-ζαxD0+D1Ix+αyD0-D1Iy-ζαx+αycosΨ+αx˜-αy˜sinΨD2IxIy,
D·1=-γD1-ζαxD1+D0/2Ix+αyD1-D0/2Iy,
D·2=-γD2-ζαxD2Ix+αyD2Iy-ζαx+αycosΨ+αx˜-αy˜sinΨD0/2IxIy.

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