Abstract

We fabricated second-order nonlinear gratings in D-shaped germanosilicate fibers, using thermal poling and periodic electrodes defined by standard photolithography. These gratings, which are up to 75  mm long, were used for efficient quasi-phase-matched frequency doubling of 1.532μm nanosecond pulses from a high-power erbium-doped fiber amplifier. Average second-harmonic powers as high as 6.8  mW and peak powers greater than 1.2  kW at 766  nm were generated, with average and peak conversion efficiencies as high as 21% and 30%, respectively.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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1998 (1)

V. Pruneri, G. Bonfrate, P. G. Kazansky, C. Simonneau, P. Vidakovic, and J. A. Levenson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1007 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

1996 (2)

S. J. B. Yoo, C. Caneau, R. Bhat, M. A. Koza, A. Rajhel, and N. Antoniades, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2609 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Jäger, G. I. Stegeman, W. Brinker, S. Yilmaz, S. Bauer, W. H. G. Horsthuis, and G. R. Möhlmann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1183 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

J. Webjörn, V. Pruneri, P. St. J. Russell, and D. C. Hanna, Electron. Lett. 31, 669 (1995).V. Pruneri, S. D. Butterworth, and D. C. Hanna, Opt. Lett. 21, 390 (1996)M. A. Arbore, M. M. Fejer, M. E. Fermann, A. Hariharan, A. Galvanauskas, and D. Harter, Opt. Lett. 22, 13 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

R. Kashyap, G. J. Veldhuis, D. C. Rogers, and P. F. McKee, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1332 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

M. Yamada, N. Nada, M. Saitoh, and K. Watanabe, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 435 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

1962 (1)

J. A. Armstrong, N. Bloembergen, J. Ducuing, and P. S. Pershan, Phys. Rev. 127, 1918 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Antoniades, N.

S. J. B. Yoo, C. Caneau, R. Bhat, M. A. Koza, A. Rajhel, and N. Antoniades, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2609 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Armstrong, J. A.

J. A. Armstrong, N. Bloembergen, J. Ducuing, and P. S. Pershan, Phys. Rev. 127, 1918 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Bauer, S.

M. Jäger, G. I. Stegeman, W. Brinker, S. Yilmaz, S. Bauer, W. H. G. Horsthuis, and G. R. Möhlmann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1183 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bhat, R.

S. J. B. Yoo, C. Caneau, R. Bhat, M. A. Koza, A. Rajhel, and N. Antoniades, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2609 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bloembergen, N.

J. A. Armstrong, N. Bloembergen, J. Ducuing, and P. S. Pershan, Phys. Rev. 127, 1918 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Bonfrate, G.

V. Pruneri, G. Bonfrate, P. G. Kazansky, C. Simonneau, P. Vidakovic, and J. A. Levenson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1007 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Brinker, W.

M. Jäger, G. I. Stegeman, W. Brinker, S. Yilmaz, S. Bauer, W. H. G. Horsthuis, and G. R. Möhlmann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1183 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Brueck, S. R. J.

Caneau, C.

S. J. B. Yoo, C. Caneau, R. Bhat, M. A. Koza, A. Rajhel, and N. Antoniades, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2609 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Caplen, J. E.

Dong, L.

Ducuing, J.

J. A. Armstrong, N. Bloembergen, J. Ducuing, and P. S. Pershan, Phys. Rev. 127, 1918 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Hanna, D. C.

J. Webjörn, V. Pruneri, P. St. J. Russell, and D. C. Hanna, Electron. Lett. 31, 669 (1995).V. Pruneri, S. D. Butterworth, and D. C. Hanna, Opt. Lett. 21, 390 (1996)M. A. Arbore, M. M. Fejer, M. E. Fermann, A. Hariharan, A. Galvanauskas, and D. Harter, Opt. Lett. 22, 13 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Horsthuis, W. H. G.

M. Jäger, G. I. Stegeman, W. Brinker, S. Yilmaz, S. Bauer, W. H. G. Horsthuis, and G. R. Möhlmann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1183 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Jäger, M.

M. Jäger, G. I. Stegeman, W. Brinker, S. Yilmaz, S. Bauer, W. H. G. Horsthuis, and G. R. Möhlmann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1183 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kashyap, R.

R. Kashyap, G. J. Veldhuis, D. C. Rogers, and P. F. McKee, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1332 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kazansky, P. G.

V. Pruneri, G. Bonfrate, P. G. Kazansky, C. Simonneau, P. Vidakovic, and J. A. Levenson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1007 (1998).
[CrossRef]

V. Pruneri and P. G. Kazansky, Electron. Lett. 33, 318 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Koza, M. A.

S. J. B. Yoo, C. Caneau, R. Bhat, M. A. Koza, A. Rajhel, and N. Antoniades, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2609 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Levenson, J. A.

V. Pruneri, G. Bonfrate, P. G. Kazansky, C. Simonneau, P. Vidakovic, and J. A. Levenson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1007 (1998).
[CrossRef]

McKee, P. F.

R. Kashyap, G. J. Veldhuis, D. C. Rogers, and P. F. McKee, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1332 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Möhlmann, G. R.

M. Jäger, G. I. Stegeman, W. Brinker, S. Yilmaz, S. Bauer, W. H. G. Horsthuis, and G. R. Möhlmann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1183 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mukherjee, N.

Myers, R. A.

Nada, N.

M. Yamada, N. Nada, M. Saitoh, and K. Watanabe, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 435 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Penty, R. V.

Pershan, P. S.

J. A. Armstrong, N. Bloembergen, J. Ducuing, and P. S. Pershan, Phys. Rev. 127, 1918 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Pruneri, V.

V. Pruneri, G. Bonfrate, P. G. Kazansky, C. Simonneau, P. Vidakovic, and J. A. Levenson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1007 (1998).
[CrossRef]

V. Pruneri and P. G. Kazansky, Electron. Lett. 33, 318 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Webjörn, V. Pruneri, P. St. J. Russell, and D. C. Hanna, Electron. Lett. 31, 669 (1995).V. Pruneri, S. D. Butterworth, and D. C. Hanna, Opt. Lett. 21, 390 (1996)M. A. Arbore, M. M. Fejer, M. E. Fermann, A. Hariharan, A. Galvanauskas, and D. Harter, Opt. Lett. 22, 13 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rajhel, A.

S. J. B. Yoo, C. Caneau, R. Bhat, M. A. Koza, A. Rajhel, and N. Antoniades, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2609 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, D. J.

Rogers, D. C.

R. Kashyap, G. J. Veldhuis, D. C. Rogers, and P. F. McKee, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1332 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Saitoh, M.

M. Yamada, N. Nada, M. Saitoh, and K. Watanabe, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 435 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Simonneau, C.

V. Pruneri, G. Bonfrate, P. G. Kazansky, C. Simonneau, P. Vidakovic, and J. A. Levenson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1007 (1998).
[CrossRef]

St. J. Russell, P.

J. Webjörn, V. Pruneri, P. St. J. Russell, and D. C. Hanna, Electron. Lett. 31, 669 (1995).V. Pruneri, S. D. Butterworth, and D. C. Hanna, Opt. Lett. 21, 390 (1996)M. A. Arbore, M. M. Fejer, M. E. Fermann, A. Hariharan, A. Galvanauskas, and D. Harter, Opt. Lett. 22, 13 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stegeman, G. I.

M. Jäger, G. I. Stegeman, W. Brinker, S. Yilmaz, S. Bauer, W. H. G. Horsthuis, and G. R. Möhlmann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1183 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Taverner, D.

Veldhuis, G. J.

R. Kashyap, G. J. Veldhuis, D. C. Rogers, and P. F. McKee, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1332 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Vidakovic, P.

V. Pruneri, G. Bonfrate, P. G. Kazansky, C. Simonneau, P. Vidakovic, and J. A. Levenson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1007 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, K.

M. Yamada, N. Nada, M. Saitoh, and K. Watanabe, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 435 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Webjörn, J.

J. Webjörn, V. Pruneri, P. St. J. Russell, and D. C. Hanna, Electron. Lett. 31, 669 (1995).V. Pruneri, S. D. Butterworth, and D. C. Hanna, Opt. Lett. 21, 390 (1996)M. A. Arbore, M. M. Fejer, M. E. Fermann, A. Hariharan, A. Galvanauskas, and D. Harter, Opt. Lett. 22, 13 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Williams, K.

Yamada, M.

M. Yamada, N. Nada, M. Saitoh, and K. Watanabe, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 435 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Yilmaz, S.

M. Jäger, G. I. Stegeman, W. Brinker, S. Yilmaz, S. Bauer, W. H. G. Horsthuis, and G. R. Möhlmann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1183 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Yoo, S. J. B.

S. J. B. Yoo, C. Caneau, R. Bhat, M. A. Koza, A. Rajhel, and N. Antoniades, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2609 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

M. Yamada, N. Nada, M. Saitoh, and K. Watanabe, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 435 (1993).
[CrossRef]

S. J. B. Yoo, C. Caneau, R. Bhat, M. A. Koza, A. Rajhel, and N. Antoniades, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2609 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Jäger, G. I. Stegeman, W. Brinker, S. Yilmaz, S. Bauer, W. H. G. Horsthuis, and G. R. Möhlmann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1183 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. Kashyap, G. J. Veldhuis, D. C. Rogers, and P. F. McKee, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1332 (1994).
[CrossRef]

V. Pruneri, G. Bonfrate, P. G. Kazansky, C. Simonneau, P. Vidakovic, and J. A. Levenson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1007 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (2)

J. Webjörn, V. Pruneri, P. St. J. Russell, and D. C. Hanna, Electron. Lett. 31, 669 (1995).V. Pruneri, S. D. Butterworth, and D. C. Hanna, Opt. Lett. 21, 390 (1996)M. A. Arbore, M. M. Fejer, M. E. Fermann, A. Hariharan, A. Galvanauskas, and D. Harter, Opt. Lett. 22, 13 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Pruneri and P. G. Kazansky, Electron. Lett. 33, 318 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. (1)

J. A. Armstrong, N. Bloembergen, J. Ducuing, and P. S. Pershan, Phys. Rev. 127, 1918 (1962).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

QPM curves (SH power as a function of fundamental wavelength) for sample  A (period, 56.45 μm; length, 75  mm) and sample  B (period, 56.5 μm; length, 60  mm). The N.A.  and the core radius of the fiber are 0.191 and 3 μm, respectively.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Average SH power and conversion efficiency as functions of average fundamental power for QPM SH generation of 2-ns pulses at 1531.5  nm and 4  kHz for sample A. Solid curve, quadratic behavior (linear behavior in efficiency) that fits the experimental points at fundamental powers below 20  mW. Inset, fundamental pulse shape.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Average SH conversion efficiency as a function of average fundamental power for the QPM SH generation of 2-ns pulses at 1532.7  nm for sample  B at 1 and 3.3  kHz.

Equations (1)

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η2ωt=2ω2deff2n2ωnω2ϵ0c03PωtAOVLL2sinc2ΔβL2,deff=1mπfω2x,ydx,yf2ω*x,yδxδyfω2x,yf2ω*x,yδxδy,AOVL=1fω2x,yf2ω*x,yδxδy2,

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