Abstract

We demonstrate a photorefractive incoherent-to-coherent optical converter driven by ultraviolet light that provides a 35μs response time and an optical resolution of 124  line pairs/mm. The device, implemented in KNbO3, operates with a modulating intensity of 85 mW/cm2, which corresponds to an optical switching energy per bit of 0.5  pJ. A conversion rate of the order of 90 Gbits/s cm2 is achieved. The conversion between the ultraviolet light and the visible laser beam at λ=532 nm occurs through anisotropic Bragg diffraction at a modulated interband photorefractive grating. Our device has a better optical resolution and conversion rate than optically addressed solid-state spatial light modulators based on the photorefractive effect and multiple quantum wells, and it is also faster than devices based on liquid crystals.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. S. Fukushima, T. Kurokawa, and M. Ohno, Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 787 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  2. S. R. Bowman, W. S. Rabinovich, G. Beadie, S. M. Kirkpatrick, D. S. Katzer, K. Ikossi-Anastasiou, and C. L. Adler, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 640 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. A. Kamshilin and M. P. Petrov, Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 6, 144 (1980).
  4. Y. Shi, D. Psaltis, A. Marrakchi, and A. R. Tanguay, Appl. Opt. 22, 3665 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. P. Amrhein and P. Günter, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 2387 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. Zhang, H. Wang, S. Yoshikado, and T. Aruga, Opt. Lett. 22, 1612 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  7. G. Montemezzani, P. Rogin, M. Zgonik, and P. Günter, Phys. Rev. B 49, 2484 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  8. P. Bernasconi, G. Montemezzani, and P. Günter, “Off-Bragg angle light diffraction and structure of dynamic photorefractive gratings,” Appl. Phys. B (to be published).
  9. P. Günter and J. P. Huignard, eds., Photorefractive Materials and Their Applications (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1988), Vols. I and II.
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. Marrakchi, A. R. Tanguay, J. Yu, and D. Psaltis, Opt. Eng. 24, 124 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  11. G. Montemezzani and M. Zgonik, Phys. Rev. E 35, 1035 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  12. E. Voit and P. Günter, Opt. Lett. 12, 679 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  13. Y. Nagao, H. Sakata, and Y. Mimura, Appl. Opt. 31, 3966 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. Y. Bitou and T. Minemoto, Appl. Opt. 37, 4347 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  15. Q. Wang-Song, C. Zhang, R. Blumer, R. B. Gross, Z. Chen, and R. R. Birge, Opt. Lett. 18, 1373 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  16. B. S. Lowans, B. Bates, and R. G. H. Greer, Opt. Commun. 109, 29 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  17. B. Ai, D. S. Glassner, R. J. Knize, and J. P. Partanen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 951 (1994).
    [CrossRef]

1998 (2)

1997 (1)

G. Montemezzani and M. Zgonik, Phys. Rev. E 35, 1035 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1994 (3)

G. Montemezzani, P. Rogin, M. Zgonik, and P. Günter, Phys. Rev. B 49, 2484 (1994).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Lowans, B. Bates, and R. G. H. Greer, Opt. Commun. 109, 29 (1994).
[CrossRef]

B. Ai, D. S. Glassner, R. J. Knize, and J. P. Partanen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 951 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

1992 (1)

1991 (1)

S. Fukushima, T. Kurokawa, and M. Ohno, Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 787 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

1987 (1)

E. Voit and P. Günter, Opt. Lett. 12, 679 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

A. Marrakchi, A. R. Tanguay, J. Yu, and D. Psaltis, Opt. Eng. 24, 124 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

1980 (1)

A. A. Kamshilin and M. P. Petrov, Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 6, 144 (1980).

Adler, C. L.

Ai, B.

B. Ai, D. S. Glassner, R. J. Knize, and J. P. Partanen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 951 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Amrhein, P.

Aruga, T.

Bates, B.

B. S. Lowans, B. Bates, and R. G. H. Greer, Opt. Commun. 109, 29 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Beadie, G.

Bernasconi, P.

P. Bernasconi, G. Montemezzani, and P. Günter, “Off-Bragg angle light diffraction and structure of dynamic photorefractive gratings,” Appl. Phys. B (to be published).

Birge, R. R.

Bitou, Y.

Blumer, R.

Bowman, S. R.

Chen, Z.

Fukushima, S.

S. Fukushima, T. Kurokawa, and M. Ohno, Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 787 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Glassner, D. S.

B. Ai, D. S. Glassner, R. J. Knize, and J. P. Partanen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 951 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Greer, R. G. H.

B. S. Lowans, B. Bates, and R. G. H. Greer, Opt. Commun. 109, 29 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Gross, R. B.

Günter, P.

G. Montemezzani, P. Rogin, M. Zgonik, and P. Günter, Phys. Rev. B 49, 2484 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. Amrhein and P. Günter, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 2387 (1990).
[CrossRef]

E. Voit and P. Günter, Opt. Lett. 12, 679 (1987).
[CrossRef]

P. Bernasconi, G. Montemezzani, and P. Günter, “Off-Bragg angle light diffraction and structure of dynamic photorefractive gratings,” Appl. Phys. B (to be published).

Ikossi-Anastasiou, K.

Kamshilin, A. A.

A. A. Kamshilin and M. P. Petrov, Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 6, 144 (1980).

Katzer, D. S.

Kirkpatrick, S. M.

Knize, R. J.

B. Ai, D. S. Glassner, R. J. Knize, and J. P. Partanen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 951 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kurokawa, T.

S. Fukushima, T. Kurokawa, and M. Ohno, Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 787 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Lowans, B. S.

B. S. Lowans, B. Bates, and R. G. H. Greer, Opt. Commun. 109, 29 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Marrakchi, A.

A. Marrakchi, A. R. Tanguay, J. Yu, and D. Psaltis, Opt. Eng. 24, 124 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shi, D. Psaltis, A. Marrakchi, and A. R. Tanguay, Appl. Opt. 22, 3665 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mimura, Y.

Minemoto, T.

Montemezzani, G.

G. Montemezzani and M. Zgonik, Phys. Rev. E 35, 1035 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. Montemezzani, P. Rogin, M. Zgonik, and P. Günter, Phys. Rev. B 49, 2484 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. Bernasconi, G. Montemezzani, and P. Günter, “Off-Bragg angle light diffraction and structure of dynamic photorefractive gratings,” Appl. Phys. B (to be published).

Nagao, Y.

Ohno, M.

S. Fukushima, T. Kurokawa, and M. Ohno, Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 787 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Partanen, J. P.

B. Ai, D. S. Glassner, R. J. Knize, and J. P. Partanen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 951 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Petrov, M. P.

A. A. Kamshilin and M. P. Petrov, Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 6, 144 (1980).

Psaltis, D.

A. Marrakchi, A. R. Tanguay, J. Yu, and D. Psaltis, Opt. Eng. 24, 124 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shi, D. Psaltis, A. Marrakchi, and A. R. Tanguay, Appl. Opt. 22, 3665 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rabinovich, W. S.

Rogin, P.

G. Montemezzani, P. Rogin, M. Zgonik, and P. Günter, Phys. Rev. B 49, 2484 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sakata, H.

Shi, Y.

Tanguay, A. R.

A. Marrakchi, A. R. Tanguay, J. Yu, and D. Psaltis, Opt. Eng. 24, 124 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shi, D. Psaltis, A. Marrakchi, and A. R. Tanguay, Appl. Opt. 22, 3665 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Voit, E.

E. Voit and P. Günter, Opt. Lett. 12, 679 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Wang, H.

Wang-Song, Q.

Yoshikado, S.

Yu, J.

A. Marrakchi, A. R. Tanguay, J. Yu, and D. Psaltis, Opt. Eng. 24, 124 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Zgonik, M.

G. Montemezzani and M. Zgonik, Phys. Rev. E 35, 1035 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. Montemezzani, P. Rogin, M. Zgonik, and P. Günter, Phys. Rev. B 49, 2484 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, C.

Zhang, J.

Appl. Opt. (3)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

B. Ai, D. S. Glassner, R. J. Knize, and J. P. Partanen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 951 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. Fukushima, T. Kurokawa, and M. Ohno, Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 787 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Opt. Commun. (1)

B. S. Lowans, B. Bates, and R. G. H. Greer, Opt. Commun. 109, 29 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

A. Marrakchi, A. R. Tanguay, J. Yu, and D. Psaltis, Opt. Eng. 24, 124 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

G. Montemezzani, P. Rogin, M. Zgonik, and P. Günter, Phys. Rev. B 49, 2484 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E (1)

G. Montemezzani and M. Zgonik, Phys. Rev. E 35, 1035 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. (1)

A. A. Kamshilin and M. P. Petrov, Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 6, 144 (1980).

Other (2)

P. Bernasconi, G. Montemezzani, and P. Günter, “Off-Bragg angle light diffraction and structure of dynamic photorefractive gratings,” Appl. Phys. B (to be published).

P. Günter and J. P. Huignard, eds., Photorefractive Materials and Their Applications (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1988), Vols. I and II.
[CrossRef]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Resolution limit R versus the ratio n/λro for different grating thicknesses d in KNbO3. R is defined at 50% of the modulation transfer function, and n is the refractive index at λro. The lines are calculated assuming Λg=0.6 μm and a diffraction efficiency of η=0.01. , resolution measured with a 0.83-mm-thick conventional photorefractive grating5 at λro=633 nm; , resolution measured in this work with a 47μm-thick interband grating at λro=532 nm. Inset, detail of the converted image showing optical resolution of 124 lp/mm. The size of the image on the crystal is 5 mm×5 mm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic setup of a PICOC. The two interfering recording waves produce a photorefractive grating, which is modulated by the projected image carried by incoherent light. The readout laser beam is diffracted, revealing the contrast-reversed image.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Recording time and (b) grating recovery time versus incoherent intensity for different recording intensities Irec: , 8 mW/cm2; , 25 mW/cm2; , 85 mW/cm2. The lines are guides to the eye.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Experimental Results of an Illustrative Comparison among Selected Optically Addressed SLM's Operated in the Diffraction (D) or Transmission (T) Mode a

Equations (1)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ppin/ppout=3η1/32R2hνroIroτ1/3×τ2R2Irechνrec+Iinchνinc+Irohνro,

Metrics