Abstract

Strong electric-field enhancements at the apex of a tungsten tip illuminated by an external light source were recently predicted theoretically. We present an experimental study of the dependence of this effect on the polarization angle of the incident light. It is shown that the intensity of the light scattered by the tungsten tip of an apertureless scanning near-field optical microscope is 2 orders of magnitude higher when the incident light is p polarized than when it is s polarized. This experimental result is in good agreement with theoretical predictions and provides an easy way to test the quality of the tips.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. M. A. Paesler and P. J. Moyer, Near Field Optics:?Theory, Instrumentation and Applications (Wiley-Interscience, 1996, New York), pp. 257–344.
  2. E. Betzig and J. K. Trautman, Science 257, 189 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. F. Zenhausern, M. P. O'Boyle, and K. H. Wickramasinghe, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1623 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  4. Y. Inouye and S. Kawata, Opt. Commun. 134, 31 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. Bachelot, P. Gleyzes, and A. C. Boccara, Opt. Lett. 20, 1924 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. W. Denk and D. W. Pohl, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 9, 510 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  7. O. J. F. Martin and C. Girard, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 705 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  8. L. Novotny, R. X. Bian, and X. Sunny Xie, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 645 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  9. H. Cory, A. C. Boccara, J. C. Rivoal, and A. Lahrech, Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 18, 120 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. Jersch and K. Dickmann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 868 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  11. R. Carminati, A. Madrazo, M. Nieto-Vesperinas, and J. J. Greffet, J. Appl. Phys. 82, 501 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  12. O. J. F. Martin, C. Girard, and A. Dereux, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 526 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. S. Kawata and Y. Inouye, Ultramicroscopy 57, 313 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  14. R. Bachelot, P. Gleyzes, and A. C. Boccara, Appl. Opt. 36, 2160 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. J. J. Bowman, T. B. A. Senior, and P. L. E. Uslenghi, in Electromagnetic and Acoustic Scattering by Simple Shapes, J. J. Bowman, ed. (Hemisphere, New York, 1987), pp. 660–690.
  16. J. Van Bladel, Singular Electromagnetic Fields and Sources (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 1991), pp. 165–205.

1998 (1)

H. Cory, A. C. Boccara, J. C. Rivoal, and A. Lahrech, Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 18, 120 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (5)

O. J. F. Martin and C. Girard, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 705 (1997).
[CrossRef]

L. Novotny, R. X. Bian, and X. Sunny Xie, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 645 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. Inouye and S. Kawata, Opt. Commun. 134, 31 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Carminati, A. Madrazo, M. Nieto-Vesperinas, and J. J. Greffet, J. Appl. Phys. 82, 501 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Bachelot, P. Gleyzes, and A. C. Boccara, Appl. Opt. 36, 2160 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

J. Jersch and K. Dickmann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 868 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (3)

R. Bachelot, P. Gleyzes, and A. C. Boccara, Opt. Lett. 20, 1924 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. J. F. Martin, C. Girard, and A. Dereux, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 526 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Kawata and Y. Inouye, Ultramicroscopy 57, 313 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

F. Zenhausern, M. P. O'Boyle, and K. H. Wickramasinghe, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1623 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

E. Betzig and J. K. Trautman, Science 257, 189 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

W. Denk and D. W. Pohl, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 9, 510 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Bachelot, R.

Betzig, E.

E. Betzig and J. K. Trautman, Science 257, 189 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bian, R. X.

L. Novotny, R. X. Bian, and X. Sunny Xie, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 645 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Boccara, A. C.

Bowman, J. J.

J. J. Bowman, T. B. A. Senior, and P. L. E. Uslenghi, in Electromagnetic and Acoustic Scattering by Simple Shapes, J. J. Bowman, ed. (Hemisphere, New York, 1987), pp. 660–690.

Carminati, R.

R. Carminati, A. Madrazo, M. Nieto-Vesperinas, and J. J. Greffet, J. Appl. Phys. 82, 501 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Cory, H.

H. Cory, A. C. Boccara, J. C. Rivoal, and A. Lahrech, Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 18, 120 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Denk, W.

W. Denk and D. W. Pohl, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 9, 510 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Dereux, A.

O. J. F. Martin, C. Girard, and A. Dereux, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 526 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dickmann, K.

J. Jersch and K. Dickmann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 868 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Girard, C.

O. J. F. Martin and C. Girard, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 705 (1997).
[CrossRef]

O. J. F. Martin, C. Girard, and A. Dereux, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 526 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gleyzes, P.

Greffet, J. J.

R. Carminati, A. Madrazo, M. Nieto-Vesperinas, and J. J. Greffet, J. Appl. Phys. 82, 501 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Inouye, Y.

Y. Inouye and S. Kawata, Opt. Commun. 134, 31 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Kawata and Y. Inouye, Ultramicroscopy 57, 313 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Jersch, J.

J. Jersch and K. Dickmann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 868 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kawata, S.

Y. Inouye and S. Kawata, Opt. Commun. 134, 31 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Kawata and Y. Inouye, Ultramicroscopy 57, 313 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lahrech, A.

H. Cory, A. C. Boccara, J. C. Rivoal, and A. Lahrech, Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 18, 120 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Madrazo, A.

R. Carminati, A. Madrazo, M. Nieto-Vesperinas, and J. J. Greffet, J. Appl. Phys. 82, 501 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Martin, O. J. F.

O. J. F. Martin and C. Girard, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 705 (1997).
[CrossRef]

O. J. F. Martin, C. Girard, and A. Dereux, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 526 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moyer, P. J.

M. A. Paesler and P. J. Moyer, Near Field Optics:?Theory, Instrumentation and Applications (Wiley-Interscience, 1996, New York), pp. 257–344.

Nieto-Vesperinas, M.

R. Carminati, A. Madrazo, M. Nieto-Vesperinas, and J. J. Greffet, J. Appl. Phys. 82, 501 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Novotny, L.

L. Novotny, R. X. Bian, and X. Sunny Xie, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 645 (1997).
[CrossRef]

O'Boyle, M. P.

F. Zenhausern, M. P. O'Boyle, and K. H. Wickramasinghe, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1623 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Paesler, M. A.

M. A. Paesler and P. J. Moyer, Near Field Optics:?Theory, Instrumentation and Applications (Wiley-Interscience, 1996, New York), pp. 257–344.

Pohl, D. W.

W. Denk and D. W. Pohl, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 9, 510 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Rivoal, J. C.

H. Cory, A. C. Boccara, J. C. Rivoal, and A. Lahrech, Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 18, 120 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Senior, T. B. A.

J. J. Bowman, T. B. A. Senior, and P. L. E. Uslenghi, in Electromagnetic and Acoustic Scattering by Simple Shapes, J. J. Bowman, ed. (Hemisphere, New York, 1987), pp. 660–690.

Sunny Xie, X.

L. Novotny, R. X. Bian, and X. Sunny Xie, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 645 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Trautman, J. K.

E. Betzig and J. K. Trautman, Science 257, 189 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Uslenghi, P. L. E.

J. J. Bowman, T. B. A. Senior, and P. L. E. Uslenghi, in Electromagnetic and Acoustic Scattering by Simple Shapes, J. J. Bowman, ed. (Hemisphere, New York, 1987), pp. 660–690.

Van Bladel, J.

J. Van Bladel, Singular Electromagnetic Fields and Sources (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 1991), pp. 165–205.

Wickramasinghe, K. H.

F. Zenhausern, M. P. O'Boyle, and K. H. Wickramasinghe, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1623 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Zenhausern, F.

F. Zenhausern, M. P. O'Boyle, and K. H. Wickramasinghe, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1623 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

F. Zenhausern, M. P. O'Boyle, and K. H. Wickramasinghe, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1623 (1994).
[CrossRef]

O. J. F. Martin and C. Girard, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 705 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Jersch and K. Dickmann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 868 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

R. Carminati, A. Madrazo, M. Nieto-Vesperinas, and J. J. Greffet, J. Appl. Phys. 82, 501 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (1)

W. Denk and D. W. Pohl, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 9, 510 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. (1)

H. Cory, A. C. Boccara, J. C. Rivoal, and A. Lahrech, Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 18, 120 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

Y. Inouye and S. Kawata, Opt. Commun. 134, 31 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

L. Novotny, R. X. Bian, and X. Sunny Xie, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 645 (1997).
[CrossRef]

O. J. F. Martin, C. Girard, and A. Dereux, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 526 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (1)

E. Betzig and J. K. Trautman, Science 257, 189 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ultramicroscopy (1)

S. Kawata and Y. Inouye, Ultramicroscopy 57, 313 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

M. A. Paesler and P. J. Moyer, Near Field Optics:?Theory, Instrumentation and Applications (Wiley-Interscience, 1996, New York), pp. 257–344.

J. J. Bowman, T. B. A. Senior, and P. L. E. Uslenghi, in Electromagnetic and Acoustic Scattering by Simple Shapes, J. J. Bowman, ed. (Hemisphere, New York, 1987), pp. 660–690.

J. Van Bladel, Singular Electromagnetic Fields and Sources (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 1991), pp. 165–205.

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Sketch of the experimental setup.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Variations of the intensity scattered by the tip as a function of polarization angle β of the incident wave. Solid curve, total electric-field intensity near the tip apex calculated from expression  ( 2).

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Eθo,βkrν-1sinβur+1νuθθaθo,θ,α,
Iβkrν-1fθo,θ,α+gθo,θ,α×Rβ,θo2× sin2β,

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