Abstract

The kinetics of Bragg grating growth in germanosilicate fibers subjected to a high static electric field are compared with those obtained without any electric field. The gratings were written by exposure of the fiber core to laser light at 244 or 193  nm. These experiments gave some clues about the mechanisms responsible for both the photosensitivity in germanosilicate fibers and the nonlinear second-order UV-induced susceptibility in silica glasses. The refractive-index modulation proved to be significantly higher in the fibers subjected to an electric field. Furthermore, the change in the fiber’s mean effective refractive index as a function of exposure time was not monotonic. This evolution can be explained by the assumption that some electric-field-induced diffusion of electron trapped centers [Ge(1) and Ge(2)] from the fiber core is involved.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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  1. K. O. Hill, Y. Fujii, D. C. Johnson, and B. S. Kawasaki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 647 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. J. F. Digonnet, Proc. SPIE 2841, 109 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  3. H. Hosono, M. Mizuguchi, H. Kawazoe, and J. Nishii, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 135, 236 (1992).
  4. T. Tsai, G. M. Williams, and E. J. Friebele, Opt. Lett. 22, 224 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. T. Tsai, E. J. Friebele, and D. L. Griscom, Proc. SPIE 2044, 121 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  6. T. Fujiwara, D. Wong, Y. Zhao, S. Flemming, S. Poole, and M. Sceats, Electron. Lett. 31, 573 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. Takahashi, T. Fujiwara, T. Kawachi, and A. J. Ikushima, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 993 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. Albert, B. Malo, K. O. Hill, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, and S. Thériault, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3529 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  9. B. Leconte, W. X. Xie, M. Douay, P. Bernage, P. Niay, J. F. Bayon, E. Delevaque, and H. Poignant, in Photosensitivity in Glasses, Vol. 17 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 169–171.
  10. J. Nishii, K. Fukumi, H. Yamanaka, K. Kawamura, H. Hosono, and H. Kawasoe, Phys. Rev. B 52, 1661 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  11. T. Tsai and E. J. Friebele, in Photosensitivity in Glasses, Vol. 17 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 101–103.
  12. B. Leconte, “Contribution à l’etude de la photosensibilité des fibres en silice sous l’effet d’une insolation par un laser ArF,” Ph.D. dissertation (Lille University, Lille, France, 1998).
  13. S. C. Fleming, T. Fujiwara, and D. Wong, in Photoconductivity and Quadratic Nonlinearity in Glass Waveguides:?Fundamentals and Applications, Vol.??22 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), paper SuD1.

1997 (2)

T. Tsai, G. M. Williams, and E. J. Friebele, Opt. Lett. 22, 224 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Takahashi, T. Fujiwara, T. Kawachi, and A. J. Ikushima, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 993 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

M. J. F. Digonnet, Proc. SPIE 2841, 109 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (3)

J. Albert, B. Malo, K. O. Hill, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, and S. Thériault, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3529 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Nishii, K. Fukumi, H. Yamanaka, K. Kawamura, H. Hosono, and H. Kawasoe, Phys. Rev. B 52, 1661 (1995).
[CrossRef]

T. Fujiwara, D. Wong, Y. Zhao, S. Flemming, S. Poole, and M. Sceats, Electron. Lett. 31, 573 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

T. Tsai, E. J. Friebele, and D. L. Griscom, Proc. SPIE 2044, 121 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

H. Hosono, M. Mizuguchi, H. Kawazoe, and J. Nishii, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 135, 236 (1992).

1978 (1)

K. O. Hill, Y. Fujii, D. C. Johnson, and B. S. Kawasaki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 647 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Albert, J.

J. Albert, B. Malo, K. O. Hill, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, and S. Thériault, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3529 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bayon, J. F.

B. Leconte, W. X. Xie, M. Douay, P. Bernage, P. Niay, J. F. Bayon, E. Delevaque, and H. Poignant, in Photosensitivity in Glasses, Vol. 17 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 169–171.

Bernage, P.

B. Leconte, W. X. Xie, M. Douay, P. Bernage, P. Niay, J. F. Bayon, E. Delevaque, and H. Poignant, in Photosensitivity in Glasses, Vol. 17 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 169–171.

Bilodeau, F.

J. Albert, B. Malo, K. O. Hill, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, and S. Thériault, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3529 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Delevaque, E.

B. Leconte, W. X. Xie, M. Douay, P. Bernage, P. Niay, J. F. Bayon, E. Delevaque, and H. Poignant, in Photosensitivity in Glasses, Vol. 17 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 169–171.

Digonnet, M. J. F.

M. J. F. Digonnet, Proc. SPIE 2841, 109 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Douay, M.

B. Leconte, W. X. Xie, M. Douay, P. Bernage, P. Niay, J. F. Bayon, E. Delevaque, and H. Poignant, in Photosensitivity in Glasses, Vol. 17 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 169–171.

Fleming, S. C.

S. C. Fleming, T. Fujiwara, and D. Wong, in Photoconductivity and Quadratic Nonlinearity in Glass Waveguides:?Fundamentals and Applications, Vol.??22 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), paper SuD1.

Flemming, S.

T. Fujiwara, D. Wong, Y. Zhao, S. Flemming, S. Poole, and M. Sceats, Electron. Lett. 31, 573 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Friebele, E. J.

T. Tsai, G. M. Williams, and E. J. Friebele, Opt. Lett. 22, 224 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Tsai, E. J. Friebele, and D. L. Griscom, Proc. SPIE 2044, 121 (1993).
[CrossRef]

T. Tsai and E. J. Friebele, in Photosensitivity in Glasses, Vol. 17 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 101–103.

Fujii, Y.

K. O. Hill, Y. Fujii, D. C. Johnson, and B. S. Kawasaki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 647 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Fujiwara, T.

M. Takahashi, T. Fujiwara, T. Kawachi, and A. J. Ikushima, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 993 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. Fujiwara, D. Wong, Y. Zhao, S. Flemming, S. Poole, and M. Sceats, Electron. Lett. 31, 573 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Fleming, T. Fujiwara, and D. Wong, in Photoconductivity and Quadratic Nonlinearity in Glass Waveguides:?Fundamentals and Applications, Vol.??22 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), paper SuD1.

Fukumi, K.

J. Nishii, K. Fukumi, H. Yamanaka, K. Kawamura, H. Hosono, and H. Kawasoe, Phys. Rev. B 52, 1661 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Griscom, D. L.

T. Tsai, E. J. Friebele, and D. L. Griscom, Proc. SPIE 2044, 121 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hill, K. O.

J. Albert, B. Malo, K. O. Hill, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, and S. Thériault, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3529 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. O. Hill, Y. Fujii, D. C. Johnson, and B. S. Kawasaki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 647 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Hosono, H.

J. Nishii, K. Fukumi, H. Yamanaka, K. Kawamura, H. Hosono, and H. Kawasoe, Phys. Rev. B 52, 1661 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. Hosono, M. Mizuguchi, H. Kawazoe, and J. Nishii, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 135, 236 (1992).

Ikushima, A. J.

M. Takahashi, T. Fujiwara, T. Kawachi, and A. J. Ikushima, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 993 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, D. C.

J. Albert, B. Malo, K. O. Hill, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, and S. Thériault, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3529 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. O. Hill, Y. Fujii, D. C. Johnson, and B. S. Kawasaki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 647 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Kawachi, T.

M. Takahashi, T. Fujiwara, T. Kawachi, and A. J. Ikushima, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 993 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kawamura, K.

J. Nishii, K. Fukumi, H. Yamanaka, K. Kawamura, H. Hosono, and H. Kawasoe, Phys. Rev. B 52, 1661 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kawasaki, B. S.

K. O. Hill, Y. Fujii, D. C. Johnson, and B. S. Kawasaki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 647 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Kawasoe, H.

J. Nishii, K. Fukumi, H. Yamanaka, K. Kawamura, H. Hosono, and H. Kawasoe, Phys. Rev. B 52, 1661 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kawazoe, H.

H. Hosono, M. Mizuguchi, H. Kawazoe, and J. Nishii, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 135, 236 (1992).

Leconte, B.

B. Leconte, “Contribution à l’etude de la photosensibilité des fibres en silice sous l’effet d’une insolation par un laser ArF,” Ph.D. dissertation (Lille University, Lille, France, 1998).

B. Leconte, W. X. Xie, M. Douay, P. Bernage, P. Niay, J. F. Bayon, E. Delevaque, and H. Poignant, in Photosensitivity in Glasses, Vol. 17 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 169–171.

Malo, B.

J. Albert, B. Malo, K. O. Hill, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, and S. Thériault, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3529 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Mizuguchi, M.

H. Hosono, M. Mizuguchi, H. Kawazoe, and J. Nishii, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 135, 236 (1992).

Niay, P.

B. Leconte, W. X. Xie, M. Douay, P. Bernage, P. Niay, J. F. Bayon, E. Delevaque, and H. Poignant, in Photosensitivity in Glasses, Vol. 17 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 169–171.

Nishii, J.

J. Nishii, K. Fukumi, H. Yamanaka, K. Kawamura, H. Hosono, and H. Kawasoe, Phys. Rev. B 52, 1661 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. Hosono, M. Mizuguchi, H. Kawazoe, and J. Nishii, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 135, 236 (1992).

Poignant, H.

B. Leconte, W. X. Xie, M. Douay, P. Bernage, P. Niay, J. F. Bayon, E. Delevaque, and H. Poignant, in Photosensitivity in Glasses, Vol. 17 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 169–171.

Poole, S.

T. Fujiwara, D. Wong, Y. Zhao, S. Flemming, S. Poole, and M. Sceats, Electron. Lett. 31, 573 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sceats, M.

T. Fujiwara, D. Wong, Y. Zhao, S. Flemming, S. Poole, and M. Sceats, Electron. Lett. 31, 573 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, M.

M. Takahashi, T. Fujiwara, T. Kawachi, and A. J. Ikushima, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 993 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Thériault, S.

J. Albert, B. Malo, K. O. Hill, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, and S. Thériault, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3529 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, T.

T. Tsai, G. M. Williams, and E. J. Friebele, Opt. Lett. 22, 224 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Tsai, E. J. Friebele, and D. L. Griscom, Proc. SPIE 2044, 121 (1993).
[CrossRef]

T. Tsai and E. J. Friebele, in Photosensitivity in Glasses, Vol. 17 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 101–103.

Williams, G. M.

Wong, D.

T. Fujiwara, D. Wong, Y. Zhao, S. Flemming, S. Poole, and M. Sceats, Electron. Lett. 31, 573 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Fleming, T. Fujiwara, and D. Wong, in Photoconductivity and Quadratic Nonlinearity in Glass Waveguides:?Fundamentals and Applications, Vol.??22 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), paper SuD1.

Xie, W. X.

B. Leconte, W. X. Xie, M. Douay, P. Bernage, P. Niay, J. F. Bayon, E. Delevaque, and H. Poignant, in Photosensitivity in Glasses, Vol. 17 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 169–171.

Yamanaka, H.

J. Nishii, K. Fukumi, H. Yamanaka, K. Kawamura, H. Hosono, and H. Kawasoe, Phys. Rev. B 52, 1661 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, Y.

T. Fujiwara, D. Wong, Y. Zhao, S. Flemming, S. Poole, and M. Sceats, Electron. Lett. 31, 573 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

K. O. Hill, Y. Fujii, D. C. Johnson, and B. S. Kawasaki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 647 (1978).
[CrossRef]

M. Takahashi, T. Fujiwara, T. Kawachi, and A. J. Ikushima, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 993 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Albert, B. Malo, K. O. Hill, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, and S. Thériault, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3529 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

T. Fujiwara, D. Wong, Y. Zhao, S. Flemming, S. Poole, and M. Sceats, Electron. Lett. 31, 573 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

H. Hosono, M. Mizuguchi, H. Kawazoe, and J. Nishii, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 135, 236 (1992).

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

J. Nishii, K. Fukumi, H. Yamanaka, K. Kawamura, H. Hosono, and H. Kawasoe, Phys. Rev. B 52, 1661 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (2)

T. Tsai, E. J. Friebele, and D. L. Griscom, Proc. SPIE 2044, 121 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. J. F. Digonnet, Proc. SPIE 2841, 109 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

T. Tsai and E. J. Friebele, in Photosensitivity in Glasses, Vol. 17 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 101–103.

B. Leconte, “Contribution à l’etude de la photosensibilité des fibres en silice sous l’effet d’une insolation par un laser ArF,” Ph.D. dissertation (Lille University, Lille, France, 1998).

S. C. Fleming, T. Fujiwara, and D. Wong, in Photoconductivity and Quadratic Nonlinearity in Glass Waveguides:?Fundamentals and Applications, Vol.??22 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), paper SuD1.

B. Leconte, W. X. Xie, M. Douay, P. Bernage, P. Niay, J. F. Bayon, E. Delevaque, and H. Poignant, in Photosensitivity in Glasses, Vol. 17 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 169–171.

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Refractive-index modulation of fiber Bragg gratings as a function of the number of pulses. The gratings were written by exposure of the fiber to A, 244-nm laser light and B, 193-nm laser light. Curves with filled circles show the growth of the gratings under a SEF. Note the different scales.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Shift of the Bragg wavelength during 244-nm UV irradiation as a function of the number of pulses. The curve with filled circles shows the shift for the fiber under the SEF.

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