Abstract

Strong beam coupling was observed in mesogenic materials consisting of low- and high-molar-mass liquid-crystal mixtures with high concentration ratios of the latter type of liquid crystal. The beam-coupling effects originate in orientational photorefractive Bragg gratings, and a weak signal beam with an intensity of 1 mW is amplified to 8 mW by energy exchange with a strong pump beam after the passage of a 50-μm-thick film under a low operating voltage of 1–4 V/μm. There is a superior net two-beam coupling gain of more than 600 cm−1 with the low operating voltage and high resolution.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  6. B. Ryszard, Y. Zhang, S. Ghosal, and M. K. Casstevens, J. Appl. Phys. 78, 6903 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

1998 (3)

A. Grunnet-Jepsen, C. L. Thompson, and W. E. Moerner, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 905 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Ono, I. Saito, and K. Nobuhiro, Appl. Phys. Lett. 20, 1942 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang and K. D. Singer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1942 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (5)

1996 (1)

I. C. Khoo, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 525 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (3)

I. C. Khoo, Opt. Lett. 20, 2137 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. P. Wiederrecht, B. A. Yoon, and M. R. Wasielewski, Science 270, 1794 (1995).
[CrossRef]

B. Ryszard, Y. Zhang, S. Ghosal, and M. K. Casstevens, J. Appl. Phys. 78, 6903 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (3)

W. E. Moerner and S. M. Silence, Chem. Rev. 94, 127 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. Meerholz, B. L. Volodin, Sandalphon, B. Kippelen, and N. Peyghambarian, Nature (London) 371, 497 (1994).
[CrossRef]

I. C. Khoo, H. Li, and Y. Liang, Opt. Lett. 21, 1723 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

S. Ducharme, J. C. Scott, R. J. Twieg, and W. E. Moerner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1846 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1981 (1)

Y. H. Ja, Electron. Lett. 17, 488 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

H. Kogelnik, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Casstevens, M. K.

B. Ryszard, Y. Zhang, S. Ghosal, and M. K. Casstevens, J. Appl. Phys. 78, 6903 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Chen, P.

Ducharme, S.

S. Ducharme, J. C. Scott, R. J. Twieg, and W. E. Moerner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1846 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ghosal, S.

B. Ryszard, Y. Zhang, S. Ghosal, and M. K. Casstevens, J. Appl. Phys. 78, 6903 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Golemme, A.

Grunnet-Jepsen, A.

A. Grunnet-Jepsen, C. L. Thompson, and W. E. Moerner, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 905 (1998).
[CrossRef]

W. E. Moerner, A. Grunnet-Jepsen, and C. L. Thompson, Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 27, 585 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Guenther, B. D.

Günter, P.

P. Günter and J. P. Huignard, Photorefractive Materials and Their Applications (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1988, 1989), Vols. 1 and 2.
[CrossRef]

Huignard, J. P.

P. Günter and J. P. Huignard, Photorefractive Materials and Their Applications (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1988, 1989), Vols. 1 and 2.
[CrossRef]

Ja, Y. H.

Y. H. Ja, Electron. Lett. 17, 488 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Khoo, I. C.

I. C. Khoo, B. D. Guenther, M. V. Wood, P. Chen, and M.-Y. Shih, Opt. Lett. 22, 1229 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. C. Khoo, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 525 (1996).
[CrossRef]

I. C. Khoo, Opt. Lett. 20, 2137 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. C. Khoo, H. Li, and Y. Liang, Opt. Lett. 21, 1723 (1994).
[CrossRef]

I. C. Khoo, Liquid Crystals(Wiley, New York, 1993).

Kippelen, B.

A. Golemme, B. L. Volodin, B. Kippelen, and N. Peyghambarian, Opt. Lett. 22, 1226 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Meerholz, B. L. Volodin, Sandalphon, B. Kippelen, and N. Peyghambarian, Nature (London) 371, 497 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kogelnik, H.

H. Kogelnik, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Lam, L.

V. P. Shibaev and L. Lam, Liquid Crystalline and Mesomorphic Polymers(Springer, New York, 1994).
[CrossRef]

Li, H.

I. C. Khoo, H. Li, and Y. Liang, Opt. Lett. 21, 1723 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Liang, Y.

I. C. Khoo, H. Li, and Y. Liang, Opt. Lett. 21, 1723 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Meerholz, K.

K. Meerholz, B. L. Volodin, Sandalphon, B. Kippelen, and N. Peyghambarian, Nature (London) 371, 497 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Moerner, W. E.

A. Grunnet-Jepsen, C. L. Thompson, and W. E. Moerner, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 905 (1998).
[CrossRef]

W. E. Moerner, A. Grunnet-Jepsen, and C. L. Thompson, Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 27, 585 (1997).
[CrossRef]

W. E. Moerner and S. M. Silence, Chem. Rev. 94, 127 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. Ducharme, J. C. Scott, R. J. Twieg, and W. E. Moerner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1846 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nobuhiro, K.

H. Ono, I. Saito, and K. Nobuhiro, Appl. Phys. Lett. 20, 1942 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Ono and K. Nobuhiro, Opt. Lett. 22, 1144 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ono, H.

H. Ono, I. Saito, and K. Nobuhiro, Appl. Phys. Lett. 20, 1942 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Ono and K. Nobuhiro, Opt. Lett. 22, 1144 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peyghambarian, N.

A. Golemme, B. L. Volodin, B. Kippelen, and N. Peyghambarian, Opt. Lett. 22, 1226 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Meerholz, B. L. Volodin, Sandalphon, B. Kippelen, and N. Peyghambarian, Nature (London) 371, 497 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ryszard, B.

B. Ryszard, Y. Zhang, S. Ghosal, and M. K. Casstevens, J. Appl. Phys. 78, 6903 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Saito, I.

H. Ono, I. Saito, and K. Nobuhiro, Appl. Phys. Lett. 20, 1942 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sandalphon,

K. Meerholz, B. L. Volodin, Sandalphon, B. Kippelen, and N. Peyghambarian, Nature (London) 371, 497 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Scott, J. C.

S. Ducharme, J. C. Scott, R. J. Twieg, and W. E. Moerner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1846 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shibaev, V. P.

V. P. Shibaev and L. Lam, Liquid Crystalline and Mesomorphic Polymers(Springer, New York, 1994).
[CrossRef]

Shih, M.-Y.

Silence, S. M.

W. E. Moerner and S. M. Silence, Chem. Rev. 94, 127 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Singer, K. D.

J. Zhang and K. D. Singer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1942 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Svec, W. A.

G. P. Wiederrecht, B. A. Yoon, W. A. Svec, and M. R. J. Wasielewski, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 119, 3358 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Thompson, C. L.

A. Grunnet-Jepsen, C. L. Thompson, and W. E. Moerner, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 905 (1998).
[CrossRef]

W. E. Moerner, A. Grunnet-Jepsen, and C. L. Thompson, Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 27, 585 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Twieg, R. J.

S. Ducharme, J. C. Scott, R. J. Twieg, and W. E. Moerner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1846 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Volodin, B. L.

A. Golemme, B. L. Volodin, B. Kippelen, and N. Peyghambarian, Opt. Lett. 22, 1226 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Meerholz, B. L. Volodin, Sandalphon, B. Kippelen, and N. Peyghambarian, Nature (London) 371, 497 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wasielewski, M. R.

G. P. Wiederrecht, B. A. Yoon, and M. R. Wasielewski, Science 270, 1794 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wasielewski, M. R. J.

G. P. Wiederrecht, B. A. Yoon, W. A. Svec, and M. R. J. Wasielewski, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 119, 3358 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wiederrecht, G. P.

G. P. Wiederrecht, B. A. Yoon, W. A. Svec, and M. R. J. Wasielewski, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 119, 3358 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Wiederrecht, B. A. Yoon, and M. R. Wasielewski, Science 270, 1794 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wood, M. V.

Yeh, P.

P. Yeh, Introduction to Nonlinear Photorefractive Optics(Wiley, New York, 1993).

Yoon, B. A.

G. P. Wiederrecht, B. A. Yoon, W. A. Svec, and M. R. J. Wasielewski, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 119, 3358 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Wiederrecht, B. A. Yoon, and M. R. Wasielewski, Science 270, 1794 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

J. Zhang and K. D. Singer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1942 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y.

B. Ryszard, Y. Zhang, S. Ghosal, and M. K. Casstevens, J. Appl. Phys. 78, 6903 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. (1)

W. E. Moerner, A. Grunnet-Jepsen, and C. L. Thompson, Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 27, 585 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

J. Zhang and K. D. Singer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1942 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Ono, I. Saito, and K. Nobuhiro, Appl. Phys. Lett. 20, 1942 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bell Syst. Tech. J. (1)

H. Kogelnik, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Rev. (1)

W. E. Moerner and S. M. Silence, Chem. Rev. 94, 127 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

Y. H. Ja, Electron. Lett. 17, 488 (1981).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

I. C. Khoo, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 525 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

G. P. Wiederrecht, B. A. Yoon, W. A. Svec, and M. R. J. Wasielewski, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 119, 3358 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

B. Ryszard, Y. Zhang, S. Ghosal, and M. K. Casstevens, J. Appl. Phys. 78, 6903 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Nature (London) (1)

K. Meerholz, B. L. Volodin, Sandalphon, B. Kippelen, and N. Peyghambarian, Nature (London) 371, 497 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (5)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

S. Ducharme, J. C. Scott, R. J. Twieg, and W. E. Moerner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1846 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (1)

G. P. Wiederrecht, B. A. Yoon, and M. R. Wasielewski, Science 270, 1794 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

I. C. Khoo, Liquid Crystals(Wiley, New York, 1993).

P. Günter and J. P. Huignard, Photorefractive Materials and Their Applications (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1988, 1989), Vols. 1 and 2.
[CrossRef]

P. Yeh, Introduction to Nonlinear Photorefractive Optics(Wiley, New York, 1993).

V. P. Shibaev and L. Lam, Liquid Crystalline and Mesomorphic Polymers(Springer, New York, 1994).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Chemical structures of (a) a L-LC mixture and (b) a SLCP.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic of the tilted two-beam coupling geometry.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Typical two-beam coupling signal. Beam coupling starts at time zero when there is an energy flow between signal and pump beams.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Dependence of gain and loss coefficients on operating dc fields.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Q = 2 π λ L / n Λ 2 ,
Γ = 1 L [ ln ( γ 0 ξ ) - ln ( ξ + 1 - γ ) ] ,
Γ net = Γ - α .

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