Abstract

A new scheme to improve the spectral resolution of grating-based spectrometers for diffuse light is proposed and demonstrated. It exploits an anamorphic transformation that reduces the beam divergence in the direction of the grating grooves while increasing the divergence in the orthogonal direction to improve the spectral resolution without any loss of light. Up to 12-fold improvement in the spectral resolution was obtained.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. Winston and W. T. Weldford, High Collection Nonimaging Optics (Academic, New York, 1989).
  2. N. Davidson and A. A. Friesem, Opt. Commun. 99, 162 (1993).
  3. A. E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science, Mill Valley, Calif., 1986), p. 697; factors of the order of unity may vary in various definitions of Mx, My, and M2.
  4. For the largest angle used in our experiment, the paraxial approximation yields an error of <1%. In any case we can readily generalize the expression in the text to deal accurately with arbitrary large angles.
  5. We also rotated the prism array at 45° to the optical axis to separate the reflected wave from the incident wave. This rotation results in simple folding of the optical axis, as shown in Fig.
  6. This is true when the retroreflector width W is much smaller than D2x. Otherwise, D3x≅D2x+W/2.
  7. The improvement in the rms width of the resolution was only tenfold, as required by Eq. 1.
  8. B. Winston and H. Hinterberg, Sol. Energy 17, 255 (1975).
  9. E. Hasman, S. Keren, N. Davidson, and A. A. Friesem, Opt. Lett. 24, 439 (1999).
  10. Th. Graf and J. E. Balmer, Opt. Lett. 18, 1317 (1993).
  11. J. R. Leger and W. C. Goltsos, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1088 (1992).
  12. N. Davidson and A. A. Friesem, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 334 (1993).
  13. S. Yamaguchi, T. Kobayashi, Y. Saito, and K. Chiba, Opt. Lett. 20, 898 (1995).
  14. B. Ehlers, K. Du, M. Baumann, H.-G. Treusch, P. Loosen, and R. Poprawe, Proc. SPIE 3097, 639 (1997).
  15. W. A. Clarkson and D. C. Hanna, Opt. Lett. 21, 375 (1996).

1999

1997

B. Ehlers, K. Du, M. Baumann, H.-G. Treusch, P. Loosen, and R. Poprawe, Proc. SPIE 3097, 639 (1997).

1996

1995

1993

N. Davidson and A. A. Friesem, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 334 (1993).

Th. Graf and J. E. Balmer, Opt. Lett. 18, 1317 (1993).

N. Davidson and A. A. Friesem, Opt. Commun. 99, 162 (1993).

1992

J. R. Leger and W. C. Goltsos, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1088 (1992).

1989

R. Winston and W. T. Weldford, High Collection Nonimaging Optics (Academic, New York, 1989).

1986

A. E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science, Mill Valley, Calif., 1986), p. 697; factors of the order of unity may vary in various definitions of Mx, My, and M2.

1975

B. Winston and H. Hinterberg, Sol. Energy 17, 255 (1975).

Balmer, J. E.

Baumann, M.

B. Ehlers, K. Du, M. Baumann, H.-G. Treusch, P. Loosen, and R. Poprawe, Proc. SPIE 3097, 639 (1997).

Chiba, K.

Clarkson, W. A.

Davidson, N.

E. Hasman, S. Keren, N. Davidson, and A. A. Friesem, Opt. Lett. 24, 439 (1999).

N. Davidson and A. A. Friesem, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 334 (1993).

N. Davidson and A. A. Friesem, Opt. Commun. 99, 162 (1993).

Du, K.

B. Ehlers, K. Du, M. Baumann, H.-G. Treusch, P. Loosen, and R. Poprawe, Proc. SPIE 3097, 639 (1997).

Ehlers, B.

B. Ehlers, K. Du, M. Baumann, H.-G. Treusch, P. Loosen, and R. Poprawe, Proc. SPIE 3097, 639 (1997).

Friesem, A. A.

E. Hasman, S. Keren, N. Davidson, and A. A. Friesem, Opt. Lett. 24, 439 (1999).

N. Davidson and A. A. Friesem, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 334 (1993).

N. Davidson and A. A. Friesem, Opt. Commun. 99, 162 (1993).

Goltsos, W. C.

J. R. Leger and W. C. Goltsos, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1088 (1992).

Graf, Th.

Hanna, D. C.

Hasman, E.

Hinterberg, H.

B. Winston and H. Hinterberg, Sol. Energy 17, 255 (1975).

Keren, S.

Kobayashi, T.

Leger, J. R.

J. R. Leger and W. C. Goltsos, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1088 (1992).

Loosen, P.

B. Ehlers, K. Du, M. Baumann, H.-G. Treusch, P. Loosen, and R. Poprawe, Proc. SPIE 3097, 639 (1997).

Poprawe, R.

B. Ehlers, K. Du, M. Baumann, H.-G. Treusch, P. Loosen, and R. Poprawe, Proc. SPIE 3097, 639 (1997).

Saito, Y.

Siegman, A. E.

A. E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science, Mill Valley, Calif., 1986), p. 697; factors of the order of unity may vary in various definitions of Mx, My, and M2.

Treusch, H.-G.

B. Ehlers, K. Du, M. Baumann, H.-G. Treusch, P. Loosen, and R. Poprawe, Proc. SPIE 3097, 639 (1997).

Weldford, W. T.

R. Winston and W. T. Weldford, High Collection Nonimaging Optics (Academic, New York, 1989).

Winston, B.

B. Winston and H. Hinterberg, Sol. Energy 17, 255 (1975).

Winston, R.

R. Winston and W. T. Weldford, High Collection Nonimaging Optics (Academic, New York, 1989).

Yamaguchi, S.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

N. Davidson and A. A. Friesem, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 334 (1993).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

J. R. Leger and W. C. Goltsos, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1088 (1992).

Opt. Commun.

N. Davidson and A. A. Friesem, Opt. Commun. 99, 162 (1993).

Opt. Lett.

Proc. SPIE

B. Ehlers, K. Du, M. Baumann, H.-G. Treusch, P. Loosen, and R. Poprawe, Proc. SPIE 3097, 639 (1997).

Sol. Energy

B. Winston and H. Hinterberg, Sol. Energy 17, 255 (1975).

Other

R. Winston and W. T. Weldford, High Collection Nonimaging Optics (Academic, New York, 1989).

A. E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science, Mill Valley, Calif., 1986), p. 697; factors of the order of unity may vary in various definitions of Mx, My, and M2.

For the largest angle used in our experiment, the paraxial approximation yields an error of <1%. In any case we can readily generalize the expression in the text to deal accurately with arbitrary large angles.

We also rotated the prism array at 45° to the optical axis to separate the reflected wave from the incident wave. This rotation results in simple folding of the optical axis, as shown in Fig.

This is true when the retroreflector width W is much smaller than D2x. Otherwise, D3x≅D2x+W/2.

The improvement in the rms width of the resolution was only tenfold, as required by Eq. 1.

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