Abstract

A volume grating focusing waveguide coupler has been designed, fabricated, and tested. The volume grating is designed to couple a 633-nm wave guided in a single-mode polyimide waveguide preferentially into the air cover. The beam is outcoupled normally to the surface of the waveguide and focused to a line 25 mm above the waveguide. The slanted-fringe volume grating is holographically recorded by the interference of two coherent 364-nm ultraviolet waves focused with a cylindrical lens to produce the chirped grating. The 1-mm-long volume grating coupler exhibits a preferential-coupling ratio of 0.98, a coupling efficiency of 95%, and an almost diffraction-limited focal line with a full width at half-maximum of 10.49 µm.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. T. Liao, S. Sheard, M. Li, J. Zhu, and P. Prewett, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1142 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  4. C. Zhao, J. Liu, Z. Fu, and R. T. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1464 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  5. W. Driemeier, Opt. Lett. 15, 725 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

1997 (2)

T. Liao, S. Sheard, M. Li, J. Zhu, and P. Prewett, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1142 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. Zhao, J. Liu, Z. Fu, and R. T. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1464 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

W. Gambogi, W. Gerstadt, S. Mackara, and A. Weber, Proc. SPIE 1555, 256 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

Chen, R. T.

C. Zhao, J. Liu, Z. Fu, and R. T. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1464 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Driemeier, W.

Fu, Z.

C. Zhao, J. Liu, Z. Fu, and R. T. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1464 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gambogi, W.

W. Gambogi, W. Gerstadt, S. Mackara, and A. Weber, Proc. SPIE 1555, 256 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Gaylord, T. K.

Gerstadt, W.

W. Gambogi, W. Gerstadt, S. Mackara, and A. Weber, Proc. SPIE 1555, 256 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Glytsis, E. N.

Li, M.

T. Liao, S. Sheard, M. Li, J. Zhu, and P. Prewett, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1142 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Liao, T.

T. Liao, S. Sheard, M. Li, J. Zhu, and P. Prewett, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1142 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J.

C. Zhao, J. Liu, Z. Fu, and R. T. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1464 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mackara, S.

W. Gambogi, W. Gerstadt, S. Mackara, and A. Weber, Proc. SPIE 1555, 256 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Prewett, P.

T. Liao, S. Sheard, M. Li, J. Zhu, and P. Prewett, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1142 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Schultz, S. M.

Sheard, S.

T. Liao, S. Sheard, M. Li, J. Zhu, and P. Prewett, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1142 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Weber, A.

W. Gambogi, W. Gerstadt, S. Mackara, and A. Weber, Proc. SPIE 1555, 256 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, C.

C. Zhao, J. Liu, Z. Fu, and R. T. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1464 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, J.

T. Liao, S. Sheard, M. Li, J. Zhu, and P. Prewett, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1142 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

C. Zhao, J. Liu, Z. Fu, and R. T. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1464 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

T. Liao, S. Sheard, M. Li, J. Zhu, and P. Prewett, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1142 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. SPIE (1)

W. Gambogi, W. Gerstadt, S. Mackara, and A. Weber, Proc. SPIE 1555, 256 (1991).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Volume grating preferential-order focusing waveguide coupler. θf, focal angle (near 0°); xf, zf, coordinates of focal line; tg, thickness of grating; L, length of grating; tw, thickness of waveguide; K, local grating vector; Λ, local grating period; ϕ, local grating slant angle.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Recording configuration of the volume grating preferential-order waveguide coupler.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Diffracted powers measured at the surface of the coupler and at the surface of the substrate, as well as the theoretical profiles.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measured intensity profiles and the corresponding theoretical calculations at planes every 5 mm between z=0 mm (surface) and z=50 mm.

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