Abstract

We present a miniaturized Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) based on optical microelectromechanical system technology. The FTS is a Michelson interferometer with one scanning mirror. A new type of electrostatic comb drive actuator moves the mirror. We have measured a nonlinearity of the driving system of ±0.5 µm for a displacement of 38.5 µm. A method is presented to correct the spectrum to get rid of the nonlinearity. The driving reproducibility is ±25 nm. The measured resolution of the spectrometer after the phase correction is 6 nm at a wavelength of 633 nm.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. J. Bell, Introductory Fourier Transform Spectroscopy (Academic, New York, 1972).
  2. S. D. Collins, R. L. Smith, C. Gonzáles, K. P. Stewart, J. G. Hagopian, and J. M. Sirota, Opt. Lett. 24, 844 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  3. H. Teichmann, M. T. Gale, J. M. Raynor, P. Seitz, H. Schütz, R. Stutz, J. Pedersen, and S. Westenhöfer, in Optical Spectral Analysis Microsystem, Engleberg, Vol. 16 of EOS Topical Meetings Digest Series (Centre Suisse d’Electronique et de Microtechnique, Zurich, Switzerland, 1988), pp. 50–51.
  4. O. Manzardo, P. Kipfer, H. P. Herzig, H. Teichmann, M. T. Gale, and P. Ehbets, in Optical Spectral Analysis Microsystem, Engleberg, Vol. 16 of EOS Topical Meetings Digest Series (Centre Suisse d’Electronique et de Microtechnique, Zurich, Switzerland, 1988) pp. 52–53.
  5. C. Marxer, C. Thio, M. A. Gretillat, N. F. De Rooij, R. Bättig, O. Anthamatten, R. Valk, and P. Vogel, IEEE J. MEMS 6, 277 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. Mohr, M. Koh, and W. Menz, in Seventh International Conference on Solid-State Sensors and Actators (Transducers ‘93) (Yokohama, Japan, 1993), pp. 120–123.
  7. T. Hirano, T. Furuhata, K. J. Gabriel, and H. Fujita, J. Microelectromech. Syst. 1, 52 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  8. C. Marxer, “Silicon micromechanics for applications in fiber optic communication”, Ph.D. dissertation (University of Neuchâtel, Neuchâtel, Switzerland, 1997).
  9. J. Connes, Rev. Opt. 40, 45–79, 116–140, 171–190, 231–265 (1961).

1999

1997

C. Marxer, C. Thio, M. A. Gretillat, N. F. De Rooij, R. Bättig, O. Anthamatten, R. Valk, and P. Vogel, IEEE J. MEMS 6, 277 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1992

T. Hirano, T. Furuhata, K. J. Gabriel, and H. Fujita, J. Microelectromech. Syst. 1, 52 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1961

J. Connes, Rev. Opt. 40, 45–79, 116–140, 171–190, 231–265 (1961).

Anthamatten, O.

C. Marxer, C. Thio, M. A. Gretillat, N. F. De Rooij, R. Bättig, O. Anthamatten, R. Valk, and P. Vogel, IEEE J. MEMS 6, 277 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bättig, R.

C. Marxer, C. Thio, M. A. Gretillat, N. F. De Rooij, R. Bättig, O. Anthamatten, R. Valk, and P. Vogel, IEEE J. MEMS 6, 277 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bell, R. J.

R. J. Bell, Introductory Fourier Transform Spectroscopy (Academic, New York, 1972).

Collins, S. D.

Connes, J.

J. Connes, Rev. Opt. 40, 45–79, 116–140, 171–190, 231–265 (1961).

De Rooij, N. F.

C. Marxer, C. Thio, M. A. Gretillat, N. F. De Rooij, R. Bättig, O. Anthamatten, R. Valk, and P. Vogel, IEEE J. MEMS 6, 277 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ehbets, P.

O. Manzardo, P. Kipfer, H. P. Herzig, H. Teichmann, M. T. Gale, and P. Ehbets, in Optical Spectral Analysis Microsystem, Engleberg, Vol. 16 of EOS Topical Meetings Digest Series (Centre Suisse d’Electronique et de Microtechnique, Zurich, Switzerland, 1988) pp. 52–53.

Fujita, H.

T. Hirano, T. Furuhata, K. J. Gabriel, and H. Fujita, J. Microelectromech. Syst. 1, 52 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Furuhata, T.

T. Hirano, T. Furuhata, K. J. Gabriel, and H. Fujita, J. Microelectromech. Syst. 1, 52 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Gabriel, K. J.

T. Hirano, T. Furuhata, K. J. Gabriel, and H. Fujita, J. Microelectromech. Syst. 1, 52 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Gale, M. T.

O. Manzardo, P. Kipfer, H. P. Herzig, H. Teichmann, M. T. Gale, and P. Ehbets, in Optical Spectral Analysis Microsystem, Engleberg, Vol. 16 of EOS Topical Meetings Digest Series (Centre Suisse d’Electronique et de Microtechnique, Zurich, Switzerland, 1988) pp. 52–53.

H. Teichmann, M. T. Gale, J. M. Raynor, P. Seitz, H. Schütz, R. Stutz, J. Pedersen, and S. Westenhöfer, in Optical Spectral Analysis Microsystem, Engleberg, Vol. 16 of EOS Topical Meetings Digest Series (Centre Suisse d’Electronique et de Microtechnique, Zurich, Switzerland, 1988), pp. 50–51.

Gonzáles, C.

Gretillat, M. A.

C. Marxer, C. Thio, M. A. Gretillat, N. F. De Rooij, R. Bättig, O. Anthamatten, R. Valk, and P. Vogel, IEEE J. MEMS 6, 277 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hagopian, J. G.

Herzig, H. P.

O. Manzardo, P. Kipfer, H. P. Herzig, H. Teichmann, M. T. Gale, and P. Ehbets, in Optical Spectral Analysis Microsystem, Engleberg, Vol. 16 of EOS Topical Meetings Digest Series (Centre Suisse d’Electronique et de Microtechnique, Zurich, Switzerland, 1988) pp. 52–53.

Hirano, T.

T. Hirano, T. Furuhata, K. J. Gabriel, and H. Fujita, J. Microelectromech. Syst. 1, 52 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kipfer, P.

O. Manzardo, P. Kipfer, H. P. Herzig, H. Teichmann, M. T. Gale, and P. Ehbets, in Optical Spectral Analysis Microsystem, Engleberg, Vol. 16 of EOS Topical Meetings Digest Series (Centre Suisse d’Electronique et de Microtechnique, Zurich, Switzerland, 1988) pp. 52–53.

Koh, M.

J. Mohr, M. Koh, and W. Menz, in Seventh International Conference on Solid-State Sensors and Actators (Transducers ‘93) (Yokohama, Japan, 1993), pp. 120–123.

Manzardo, O.

O. Manzardo, P. Kipfer, H. P. Herzig, H. Teichmann, M. T. Gale, and P. Ehbets, in Optical Spectral Analysis Microsystem, Engleberg, Vol. 16 of EOS Topical Meetings Digest Series (Centre Suisse d’Electronique et de Microtechnique, Zurich, Switzerland, 1988) pp. 52–53.

Marxer, C.

C. Marxer, C. Thio, M. A. Gretillat, N. F. De Rooij, R. Bättig, O. Anthamatten, R. Valk, and P. Vogel, IEEE J. MEMS 6, 277 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. Marxer, “Silicon micromechanics for applications in fiber optic communication”, Ph.D. dissertation (University of Neuchâtel, Neuchâtel, Switzerland, 1997).

Menz, W.

J. Mohr, M. Koh, and W. Menz, in Seventh International Conference on Solid-State Sensors and Actators (Transducers ‘93) (Yokohama, Japan, 1993), pp. 120–123.

Mohr, J.

J. Mohr, M. Koh, and W. Menz, in Seventh International Conference on Solid-State Sensors and Actators (Transducers ‘93) (Yokohama, Japan, 1993), pp. 120–123.

Pedersen, J.

H. Teichmann, M. T. Gale, J. M. Raynor, P. Seitz, H. Schütz, R. Stutz, J. Pedersen, and S. Westenhöfer, in Optical Spectral Analysis Microsystem, Engleberg, Vol. 16 of EOS Topical Meetings Digest Series (Centre Suisse d’Electronique et de Microtechnique, Zurich, Switzerland, 1988), pp. 50–51.

Raynor, J. M.

H. Teichmann, M. T. Gale, J. M. Raynor, P. Seitz, H. Schütz, R. Stutz, J. Pedersen, and S. Westenhöfer, in Optical Spectral Analysis Microsystem, Engleberg, Vol. 16 of EOS Topical Meetings Digest Series (Centre Suisse d’Electronique et de Microtechnique, Zurich, Switzerland, 1988), pp. 50–51.

Schütz, H.

H. Teichmann, M. T. Gale, J. M. Raynor, P. Seitz, H. Schütz, R. Stutz, J. Pedersen, and S. Westenhöfer, in Optical Spectral Analysis Microsystem, Engleberg, Vol. 16 of EOS Topical Meetings Digest Series (Centre Suisse d’Electronique et de Microtechnique, Zurich, Switzerland, 1988), pp. 50–51.

Seitz, P.

H. Teichmann, M. T. Gale, J. M. Raynor, P. Seitz, H. Schütz, R. Stutz, J. Pedersen, and S. Westenhöfer, in Optical Spectral Analysis Microsystem, Engleberg, Vol. 16 of EOS Topical Meetings Digest Series (Centre Suisse d’Electronique et de Microtechnique, Zurich, Switzerland, 1988), pp. 50–51.

Sirota, J. M.

Smith, R. L.

Stewart, K. P.

Stutz, R.

H. Teichmann, M. T. Gale, J. M. Raynor, P. Seitz, H. Schütz, R. Stutz, J. Pedersen, and S. Westenhöfer, in Optical Spectral Analysis Microsystem, Engleberg, Vol. 16 of EOS Topical Meetings Digest Series (Centre Suisse d’Electronique et de Microtechnique, Zurich, Switzerland, 1988), pp. 50–51.

Teichmann, H.

O. Manzardo, P. Kipfer, H. P. Herzig, H. Teichmann, M. T. Gale, and P. Ehbets, in Optical Spectral Analysis Microsystem, Engleberg, Vol. 16 of EOS Topical Meetings Digest Series (Centre Suisse d’Electronique et de Microtechnique, Zurich, Switzerland, 1988) pp. 52–53.

H. Teichmann, M. T. Gale, J. M. Raynor, P. Seitz, H. Schütz, R. Stutz, J. Pedersen, and S. Westenhöfer, in Optical Spectral Analysis Microsystem, Engleberg, Vol. 16 of EOS Topical Meetings Digest Series (Centre Suisse d’Electronique et de Microtechnique, Zurich, Switzerland, 1988), pp. 50–51.

Thio, C.

C. Marxer, C. Thio, M. A. Gretillat, N. F. De Rooij, R. Bättig, O. Anthamatten, R. Valk, and P. Vogel, IEEE J. MEMS 6, 277 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Valk, R.

C. Marxer, C. Thio, M. A. Gretillat, N. F. De Rooij, R. Bättig, O. Anthamatten, R. Valk, and P. Vogel, IEEE J. MEMS 6, 277 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Vogel, P.

C. Marxer, C. Thio, M. A. Gretillat, N. F. De Rooij, R. Bättig, O. Anthamatten, R. Valk, and P. Vogel, IEEE J. MEMS 6, 277 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Westenhöfer, S.

H. Teichmann, M. T. Gale, J. M. Raynor, P. Seitz, H. Schütz, R. Stutz, J. Pedersen, and S. Westenhöfer, in Optical Spectral Analysis Microsystem, Engleberg, Vol. 16 of EOS Topical Meetings Digest Series (Centre Suisse d’Electronique et de Microtechnique, Zurich, Switzerland, 1988), pp. 50–51.

IEEE J. MEMS

C. Marxer, C. Thio, M. A. Gretillat, N. F. De Rooij, R. Bättig, O. Anthamatten, R. Valk, and P. Vogel, IEEE J. MEMS 6, 277 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Microelectromech. Syst.

T. Hirano, T. Furuhata, K. J. Gabriel, and H. Fujita, J. Microelectromech. Syst. 1, 52 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Rev. Opt.

J. Connes, Rev. Opt. 40, 45–79, 116–140, 171–190, 231–265 (1961).

Other

R. J. Bell, Introductory Fourier Transform Spectroscopy (Academic, New York, 1972).

C. Marxer, “Silicon micromechanics for applications in fiber optic communication”, Ph.D. dissertation (University of Neuchâtel, Neuchâtel, Switzerland, 1997).

H. Teichmann, M. T. Gale, J. M. Raynor, P. Seitz, H. Schütz, R. Stutz, J. Pedersen, and S. Westenhöfer, in Optical Spectral Analysis Microsystem, Engleberg, Vol. 16 of EOS Topical Meetings Digest Series (Centre Suisse d’Electronique et de Microtechnique, Zurich, Switzerland, 1988), pp. 50–51.

O. Manzardo, P. Kipfer, H. P. Herzig, H. Teichmann, M. T. Gale, and P. Ehbets, in Optical Spectral Analysis Microsystem, Engleberg, Vol. 16 of EOS Topical Meetings Digest Series (Centre Suisse d’Electronique et de Microtechnique, Zurich, Switzerland, 1988) pp. 52–53.

J. Mohr, M. Koh, and W. Menz, in Seventh International Conference on Solid-State Sensors and Actators (Transducers ‘93) (Yokohama, Japan, 1993), pp. 120–123.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the actuator used for FT spectroscopy: Right, arrangement of the comb electrodes that provide a linear displacement–voltage response that is used for driving the mobile mirror (mirror 1); left, Michelson interferometer. The detected intensity IR is recorded as a function of the optical path difference δ. IRδ is Fourier transformed to yield the power spectrum. BS, beam splitter.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Scanning electron microscopy photograph of the electrostatic actuator, showing the 75 µm×500 µm movable mirror, the combs, and the springs.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Two spectra of a He– Ne laser measured for both (backward and forward) directions of the mobile mirror V0±5V and δ=40 µm. The wavelength hysteresis is better than 1 nm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Nonlinearity Δδδ of the mobile mirror. Results of the interferometric measurements for both directions of the motion.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Spectrum of a He–Ne laser (V0=±10 V and δmax=77 µm) (a) before and (c) after phase correction. (b) Deviation of the nonlinearity Δδδ for several scans in the same direction. The reproducibility of the mirror motion is better than ±25 nm.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Bσ=-IRδexp-i2πσδdδ,
Δσ=1/δmax,
Δx=1kε0nhg2VAV0,
Bσ=-IRδexp-i2πσδ+Δδδdδ.

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