Abstract

Standard rainbow thermometry connects the scattering angle of the main rainbow maximum, generated by a single droplet, to the droplet’s refractive index and thus to its temperature. Droplet nonsphericity influences the rainbow position and therefore degrades the quality of the droplet-temperature measurement. We propose global rainbow thermometry, which measures the average rainbow position that is created by multiple droplets and from which a mean temperature can be derived. The new technique aims at eliminating the nonsphericity effect. The principle of this method is presented, and a typical recorded image is discussed.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. N. Roth, K. Anders, and A. Frohn, in Proceedings of the Seventh International Congress on Optical Methods in Flow and Particle Diagnostics (ICALEO 88) (Laser Institute of America, Orlando, Fla., 1998), pp. 294–304.
  2. S. V. Sankar, D. H. Buermann, and W. D. Bachalo, presented at the Seventh International Symposium on Applications of Laser Techniques to Fluid Mechanics, Lisbon, Portugal, July 11-14, 1994.
  3. J. P. A. J. van Beeck and M. L. Riethmuller, Appl. Opt. 34, 1633 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. G. B. Airy, Trans. Cambridge Philos. Soc. 6, 379 (1838).
  5. K. Anders, N. Roth, and A. Frohn, in Proceedings of the Fourth International Congress on Optical Particle Sizing (PARTEC, Nuernberg, Germany, 1995), pp. 419–428.
  6. F. Corbin, A. Garo, G. Gouesbet, and G. Gréhan, in Recuil des Actes du Congrès Francophone de Vélocimétrie Laser (Université et Institut des Sciences Appliquées de Rouen, Rouen, France, 1996), pp. E1.1–E1.8.
  7. P. Massoli, Appl. Opt. 37, 3227 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. P. A. J. van Beeck, F. L. M. Giuliani, and M. L. Riethmuller, presented at the Von Karman Institute Lecture Series: Optical Diagnostics of Particles and Droplets, Rhode-Saint-Genèse, Belgium, January, 1999.
  9. W. Moebius, Ann. Phys. (Leipzig) 33, 1493 (1910).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. P. A. J. van Beeck and M. L. Riethmuller, in Proceedings of the 81st Symposium of the Fluid Dynamics Panel on Advanced Aerodynamic Measurement Technology (Advisory Group for Aerospace Research and Development, Neuilly-sur-Seine, France, 1998), pp. 11-1, 11-7.
  11. J. P. A. J. van Beeck and M. L. Riethmuller, Appl. Opt. 35, 2259 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. S. V. Sankar, D. H. Buermann, and W. D. Bachalo, presented at the Eighth International Symposium on Applications of Laser Techniques to Fluid Mechanics, Lisbon, Portugal, July 1996.
  13. F. L. M. Giuliani, J. P. A. J. van Beeck, and M. L. Riethmuller, in Recuil des Actes du Congrès Francophone de Vélocimétrie Laser (Institut Franco-Allemand de Recherches de Saint-Louis, Saint-Louis, France, 1998), pp. B3.1–B3.6.
  14. N. Roth, K. Anders, and A. Frohn, presented at the, Sixth International Symposium on Applications of Laser Techniques to Fluid Mechanics, Lisbon, Portugal, July 1992.

1998 (1)

1996 (1)

1995 (1)

1910 (1)

W. Moebius, Ann. Phys. (Leipzig) 33, 1493 (1910).
[CrossRef]

1838 (1)

G. B. Airy, Trans. Cambridge Philos. Soc. 6, 379 (1838).

Airy, G. B.

G. B. Airy, Trans. Cambridge Philos. Soc. 6, 379 (1838).

Anders, K.

K. Anders, N. Roth, and A. Frohn, in Proceedings of the Fourth International Congress on Optical Particle Sizing (PARTEC, Nuernberg, Germany, 1995), pp. 419–428.

N. Roth, K. Anders, and A. Frohn, in Proceedings of the Seventh International Congress on Optical Methods in Flow and Particle Diagnostics (ICALEO 88) (Laser Institute of America, Orlando, Fla., 1998), pp. 294–304.

N. Roth, K. Anders, and A. Frohn, presented at the, Sixth International Symposium on Applications of Laser Techniques to Fluid Mechanics, Lisbon, Portugal, July 1992.

Bachalo, W. D.

S. V. Sankar, D. H. Buermann, and W. D. Bachalo, presented at the Eighth International Symposium on Applications of Laser Techniques to Fluid Mechanics, Lisbon, Portugal, July 1996.

S. V. Sankar, D. H. Buermann, and W. D. Bachalo, presented at the Seventh International Symposium on Applications of Laser Techniques to Fluid Mechanics, Lisbon, Portugal, July 11-14, 1994.

Buermann, D. H.

S. V. Sankar, D. H. Buermann, and W. D. Bachalo, presented at the Seventh International Symposium on Applications of Laser Techniques to Fluid Mechanics, Lisbon, Portugal, July 11-14, 1994.

S. V. Sankar, D. H. Buermann, and W. D. Bachalo, presented at the Eighth International Symposium on Applications of Laser Techniques to Fluid Mechanics, Lisbon, Portugal, July 1996.

Corbin, F.

F. Corbin, A. Garo, G. Gouesbet, and G. Gréhan, in Recuil des Actes du Congrès Francophone de Vélocimétrie Laser (Université et Institut des Sciences Appliquées de Rouen, Rouen, France, 1996), pp. E1.1–E1.8.

Frohn, A.

K. Anders, N. Roth, and A. Frohn, in Proceedings of the Fourth International Congress on Optical Particle Sizing (PARTEC, Nuernberg, Germany, 1995), pp. 419–428.

N. Roth, K. Anders, and A. Frohn, in Proceedings of the Seventh International Congress on Optical Methods in Flow and Particle Diagnostics (ICALEO 88) (Laser Institute of America, Orlando, Fla., 1998), pp. 294–304.

N. Roth, K. Anders, and A. Frohn, presented at the, Sixth International Symposium on Applications of Laser Techniques to Fluid Mechanics, Lisbon, Portugal, July 1992.

Garo, A.

F. Corbin, A. Garo, G. Gouesbet, and G. Gréhan, in Recuil des Actes du Congrès Francophone de Vélocimétrie Laser (Université et Institut des Sciences Appliquées de Rouen, Rouen, France, 1996), pp. E1.1–E1.8.

Giuliani, F. L. M.

J. P. A. J. van Beeck, F. L. M. Giuliani, and M. L. Riethmuller, presented at the Von Karman Institute Lecture Series: Optical Diagnostics of Particles and Droplets, Rhode-Saint-Genèse, Belgium, January, 1999.

F. L. M. Giuliani, J. P. A. J. van Beeck, and M. L. Riethmuller, in Recuil des Actes du Congrès Francophone de Vélocimétrie Laser (Institut Franco-Allemand de Recherches de Saint-Louis, Saint-Louis, France, 1998), pp. B3.1–B3.6.

Gouesbet, G.

F. Corbin, A. Garo, G. Gouesbet, and G. Gréhan, in Recuil des Actes du Congrès Francophone de Vélocimétrie Laser (Université et Institut des Sciences Appliquées de Rouen, Rouen, France, 1996), pp. E1.1–E1.8.

Gréhan, G.

F. Corbin, A. Garo, G. Gouesbet, and G. Gréhan, in Recuil des Actes du Congrès Francophone de Vélocimétrie Laser (Université et Institut des Sciences Appliquées de Rouen, Rouen, France, 1996), pp. E1.1–E1.8.

Massoli, P.

Moebius, W.

W. Moebius, Ann. Phys. (Leipzig) 33, 1493 (1910).
[CrossRef]

Riethmuller, M. L.

J. P. A. J. van Beeck and M. L. Riethmuller, Appl. Opt. 35, 2259 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. P. A. J. van Beeck and M. L. Riethmuller, Appl. Opt. 34, 1633 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. P. A. J. van Beeck, F. L. M. Giuliani, and M. L. Riethmuller, presented at the Von Karman Institute Lecture Series: Optical Diagnostics of Particles and Droplets, Rhode-Saint-Genèse, Belgium, January, 1999.

J. P. A. J. van Beeck and M. L. Riethmuller, in Proceedings of the 81st Symposium of the Fluid Dynamics Panel on Advanced Aerodynamic Measurement Technology (Advisory Group for Aerospace Research and Development, Neuilly-sur-Seine, France, 1998), pp. 11-1, 11-7.

F. L. M. Giuliani, J. P. A. J. van Beeck, and M. L. Riethmuller, in Recuil des Actes du Congrès Francophone de Vélocimétrie Laser (Institut Franco-Allemand de Recherches de Saint-Louis, Saint-Louis, France, 1998), pp. B3.1–B3.6.

Roth, N.

N. Roth, K. Anders, and A. Frohn, presented at the, Sixth International Symposium on Applications of Laser Techniques to Fluid Mechanics, Lisbon, Portugal, July 1992.

N. Roth, K. Anders, and A. Frohn, in Proceedings of the Seventh International Congress on Optical Methods in Flow and Particle Diagnostics (ICALEO 88) (Laser Institute of America, Orlando, Fla., 1998), pp. 294–304.

K. Anders, N. Roth, and A. Frohn, in Proceedings of the Fourth International Congress on Optical Particle Sizing (PARTEC, Nuernberg, Germany, 1995), pp. 419–428.

Sankar, S. V.

S. V. Sankar, D. H. Buermann, and W. D. Bachalo, presented at the Seventh International Symposium on Applications of Laser Techniques to Fluid Mechanics, Lisbon, Portugal, July 11-14, 1994.

S. V. Sankar, D. H. Buermann, and W. D. Bachalo, presented at the Eighth International Symposium on Applications of Laser Techniques to Fluid Mechanics, Lisbon, Portugal, July 1996.

van Beeck, J. P. A. J.

J. P. A. J. van Beeck and M. L. Riethmuller, Appl. Opt. 35, 2259 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. P. A. J. van Beeck and M. L. Riethmuller, Appl. Opt. 34, 1633 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. P. A. J. van Beeck, F. L. M. Giuliani, and M. L. Riethmuller, presented at the Von Karman Institute Lecture Series: Optical Diagnostics of Particles and Droplets, Rhode-Saint-Genèse, Belgium, January, 1999.

J. P. A. J. van Beeck and M. L. Riethmuller, in Proceedings of the 81st Symposium of the Fluid Dynamics Panel on Advanced Aerodynamic Measurement Technology (Advisory Group for Aerospace Research and Development, Neuilly-sur-Seine, France, 1998), pp. 11-1, 11-7.

F. L. M. Giuliani, J. P. A. J. van Beeck, and M. L. Riethmuller, in Recuil des Actes du Congrès Francophone de Vélocimétrie Laser (Institut Franco-Allemand de Recherches de Saint-Louis, Saint-Louis, France, 1998), pp. B3.1–B3.6.

Ann. Phys. (Leipzig) (1)

W. Moebius, Ann. Phys. (Leipzig) 33, 1493 (1910).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Trans. Cambridge Philos. Soc. (1)

G. B. Airy, Trans. Cambridge Philos. Soc. 6, 379 (1838).

Other (9)

K. Anders, N. Roth, and A. Frohn, in Proceedings of the Fourth International Congress on Optical Particle Sizing (PARTEC, Nuernberg, Germany, 1995), pp. 419–428.

F. Corbin, A. Garo, G. Gouesbet, and G. Gréhan, in Recuil des Actes du Congrès Francophone de Vélocimétrie Laser (Université et Institut des Sciences Appliquées de Rouen, Rouen, France, 1996), pp. E1.1–E1.8.

J. P. A. J. van Beeck, F. L. M. Giuliani, and M. L. Riethmuller, presented at the Von Karman Institute Lecture Series: Optical Diagnostics of Particles and Droplets, Rhode-Saint-Genèse, Belgium, January, 1999.

N. Roth, K. Anders, and A. Frohn, in Proceedings of the Seventh International Congress on Optical Methods in Flow and Particle Diagnostics (ICALEO 88) (Laser Institute of America, Orlando, Fla., 1998), pp. 294–304.

S. V. Sankar, D. H. Buermann, and W. D. Bachalo, presented at the Seventh International Symposium on Applications of Laser Techniques to Fluid Mechanics, Lisbon, Portugal, July 11-14, 1994.

S. V. Sankar, D. H. Buermann, and W. D. Bachalo, presented at the Eighth International Symposium on Applications of Laser Techniques to Fluid Mechanics, Lisbon, Portugal, July 1996.

F. L. M. Giuliani, J. P. A. J. van Beeck, and M. L. Riethmuller, in Recuil des Actes du Congrès Francophone de Vélocimétrie Laser (Institut Franco-Allemand de Recherches de Saint-Louis, Saint-Louis, France, 1998), pp. B3.1–B3.6.

N. Roth, K. Anders, and A. Frohn, presented at the, Sixth International Symposium on Applications of Laser Techniques to Fluid Mechanics, Lisbon, Portugal, July 1992.

J. P. A. J. van Beeck and M. L. Riethmuller, in Proceedings of the 81st Symposium of the Fluid Dynamics Panel on Advanced Aerodynamic Measurement Technology (Advisory Group for Aerospace Research and Development, Neuilly-sur-Seine, France, 1998), pp. 11-1, 11-7.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optical layout for the setup used in standard rainbow thermometry. The scattering angle is defined as the angle between the incident and the scattered wave vectors. For global rainbow thermometry the pinhole has to be removed, allowing superposition of rainbow patterns coming from different droplets crossing the laser beam at the same time.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Monochromatic rainbow pattern according to the Lorenz–Mie theory.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Typical global rainbow image recorded with the setup shown in Fig. 1, after removal of the pinhole. The main rainbow maximum can be observed as an intense white band. An arbitrarily oriented rainbow pattern formed by a nonspherical droplet can be seen as well.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Vertically integrated profile of the image depicted in Fig. 3. The pixel number is proportional to the scattering angle.

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