Abstract

We investigate the saturation properties of four-wave mixing of short optical pulses in a semiconductor optical amplifier. By varying the gain of the optical amplifier, we find a strong dependence of both conversion efficiency and signal-to-background ratio on pulse width and bit rate. In particular, the signal-to-background ratio can be optimized for a specific amplifier gain. This behavior, which is coherently described in experiment and theory, is attributed to the dynamics of the amplified spontaneous emission, which is the main source of noise in a semiconductor optical amplifier.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. Shtaif and G. Eisenstein, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1458 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  2. T. Morioka, H. Takara, S. Kawanishi, K. Uchiyama, and M. Saruwatari, Electron. Lett. 32, 840 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. Diez, C. Schmidt, D. Hoffmann, C. Bornholdt, B. Sartorius, H. G. Weber, L. Jiang, and A. Krotkus, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3821 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. Inoue and H. Kawaguchi, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1566 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  5. K. L. Hall, G. Lenz, A. M. Darwish, and E. P. Ippen, Opt. Commun. 111, 589 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  6. P. Borri, S. Scaffetti, J. Mørk, W. Langbein, J. M. Hvam, A. Mecozzi, and F. Martelli, Opt. Commun. 164, 51 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. Diez, C. Schmidt, R. Ludwig, H. G. Weber, K. Obermann, S. Kindt, I. Koltchanov, and K. Petermann, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1131 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  8. P. Doussiére, P. Garabedian, C. Graver, D. Bonnevie, T. Fillion, E. Derouin, M. Monnot, J. G. Provost, D. Leclerc, and M. Klenk, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 170 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. Mecozzi and J. Mørk, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1190 (1997).
    [CrossRef]

1999 (1)

P. Borri, S. Scaffetti, J. Mørk, W. Langbein, J. M. Hvam, A. Mecozzi, and F. Martelli, Opt. Commun. 164, 51 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

S. Diez, C. Schmidt, D. Hoffmann, C. Bornholdt, B. Sartorius, H. G. Weber, L. Jiang, and A. Krotkus, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3821 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Inoue and H. Kawaguchi, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1566 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

S. Diez, C. Schmidt, R. Ludwig, H. G. Weber, K. Obermann, S. Kindt, I. Koltchanov, and K. Petermann, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1131 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Mecozzi and J. Mørk, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1190 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

T. Morioka, H. Takara, S. Kawanishi, K. Uchiyama, and M. Saruwatari, Electron. Lett. 32, 840 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

M. Shtaif and G. Eisenstein, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1458 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

K. L. Hall, G. Lenz, A. M. Darwish, and E. P. Ippen, Opt. Commun. 111, 589 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. Doussiére, P. Garabedian, C. Graver, D. Bonnevie, T. Fillion, E. Derouin, M. Monnot, J. G. Provost, D. Leclerc, and M. Klenk, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 170 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bonnevie, D.

P. Doussiére, P. Garabedian, C. Graver, D. Bonnevie, T. Fillion, E. Derouin, M. Monnot, J. G. Provost, D. Leclerc, and M. Klenk, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 170 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bornholdt, C.

S. Diez, C. Schmidt, D. Hoffmann, C. Bornholdt, B. Sartorius, H. G. Weber, L. Jiang, and A. Krotkus, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3821 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Borri, P.

P. Borri, S. Scaffetti, J. Mørk, W. Langbein, J. M. Hvam, A. Mecozzi, and F. Martelli, Opt. Commun. 164, 51 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Darwish, A. M.

K. L. Hall, G. Lenz, A. M. Darwish, and E. P. Ippen, Opt. Commun. 111, 589 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Derouin, E.

P. Doussiére, P. Garabedian, C. Graver, D. Bonnevie, T. Fillion, E. Derouin, M. Monnot, J. G. Provost, D. Leclerc, and M. Klenk, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 170 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Diez, S.

S. Diez, C. Schmidt, D. Hoffmann, C. Bornholdt, B. Sartorius, H. G. Weber, L. Jiang, and A. Krotkus, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3821 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Diez, C. Schmidt, R. Ludwig, H. G. Weber, K. Obermann, S. Kindt, I. Koltchanov, and K. Petermann, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1131 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Doussiére, P.

P. Doussiére, P. Garabedian, C. Graver, D. Bonnevie, T. Fillion, E. Derouin, M. Monnot, J. G. Provost, D. Leclerc, and M. Klenk, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 170 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Eisenstein, G.

M. Shtaif and G. Eisenstein, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1458 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Fillion, T.

P. Doussiére, P. Garabedian, C. Graver, D. Bonnevie, T. Fillion, E. Derouin, M. Monnot, J. G. Provost, D. Leclerc, and M. Klenk, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 170 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Garabedian, P.

P. Doussiére, P. Garabedian, C. Graver, D. Bonnevie, T. Fillion, E. Derouin, M. Monnot, J. G. Provost, D. Leclerc, and M. Klenk, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 170 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Graver, C.

P. Doussiére, P. Garabedian, C. Graver, D. Bonnevie, T. Fillion, E. Derouin, M. Monnot, J. G. Provost, D. Leclerc, and M. Klenk, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 170 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hall, K. L.

K. L. Hall, G. Lenz, A. M. Darwish, and E. P. Ippen, Opt. Commun. 111, 589 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hoffmann, D.

S. Diez, C. Schmidt, D. Hoffmann, C. Bornholdt, B. Sartorius, H. G. Weber, L. Jiang, and A. Krotkus, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3821 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hvam, J. M.

P. Borri, S. Scaffetti, J. Mørk, W. Langbein, J. M. Hvam, A. Mecozzi, and F. Martelli, Opt. Commun. 164, 51 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Inoue, J.

J. Inoue and H. Kawaguchi, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1566 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ippen, E. P.

K. L. Hall, G. Lenz, A. M. Darwish, and E. P. Ippen, Opt. Commun. 111, 589 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, L.

S. Diez, C. Schmidt, D. Hoffmann, C. Bornholdt, B. Sartorius, H. G. Weber, L. Jiang, and A. Krotkus, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3821 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kawaguchi, H.

J. Inoue and H. Kawaguchi, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1566 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kawanishi, S.

T. Morioka, H. Takara, S. Kawanishi, K. Uchiyama, and M. Saruwatari, Electron. Lett. 32, 840 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kindt, S.

S. Diez, C. Schmidt, R. Ludwig, H. G. Weber, K. Obermann, S. Kindt, I. Koltchanov, and K. Petermann, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1131 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Klenk, M.

P. Doussiére, P. Garabedian, C. Graver, D. Bonnevie, T. Fillion, E. Derouin, M. Monnot, J. G. Provost, D. Leclerc, and M. Klenk, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 170 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Koltchanov, I.

S. Diez, C. Schmidt, R. Ludwig, H. G. Weber, K. Obermann, S. Kindt, I. Koltchanov, and K. Petermann, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1131 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Krotkus, A.

S. Diez, C. Schmidt, D. Hoffmann, C. Bornholdt, B. Sartorius, H. G. Weber, L. Jiang, and A. Krotkus, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3821 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Langbein, W.

P. Borri, S. Scaffetti, J. Mørk, W. Langbein, J. M. Hvam, A. Mecozzi, and F. Martelli, Opt. Commun. 164, 51 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Leclerc, D.

P. Doussiére, P. Garabedian, C. Graver, D. Bonnevie, T. Fillion, E. Derouin, M. Monnot, J. G. Provost, D. Leclerc, and M. Klenk, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 170 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lenz, G.

K. L. Hall, G. Lenz, A. M. Darwish, and E. P. Ippen, Opt. Commun. 111, 589 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ludwig, R.

S. Diez, C. Schmidt, R. Ludwig, H. G. Weber, K. Obermann, S. Kindt, I. Koltchanov, and K. Petermann, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1131 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Martelli, F.

P. Borri, S. Scaffetti, J. Mørk, W. Langbein, J. M. Hvam, A. Mecozzi, and F. Martelli, Opt. Commun. 164, 51 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mecozzi, A.

P. Borri, S. Scaffetti, J. Mørk, W. Langbein, J. M. Hvam, A. Mecozzi, and F. Martelli, Opt. Commun. 164, 51 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Mecozzi and J. Mørk, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1190 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Monnot, M.

P. Doussiére, P. Garabedian, C. Graver, D. Bonnevie, T. Fillion, E. Derouin, M. Monnot, J. G. Provost, D. Leclerc, and M. Klenk, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 170 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Morioka, T.

T. Morioka, H. Takara, S. Kawanishi, K. Uchiyama, and M. Saruwatari, Electron. Lett. 32, 840 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mørk, J.

P. Borri, S. Scaffetti, J. Mørk, W. Langbein, J. M. Hvam, A. Mecozzi, and F. Martelli, Opt. Commun. 164, 51 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Mecozzi and J. Mørk, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1190 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Obermann, K.

S. Diez, C. Schmidt, R. Ludwig, H. G. Weber, K. Obermann, S. Kindt, I. Koltchanov, and K. Petermann, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1131 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Petermann, K.

S. Diez, C. Schmidt, R. Ludwig, H. G. Weber, K. Obermann, S. Kindt, I. Koltchanov, and K. Petermann, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1131 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Provost, J. G.

P. Doussiére, P. Garabedian, C. Graver, D. Bonnevie, T. Fillion, E. Derouin, M. Monnot, J. G. Provost, D. Leclerc, and M. Klenk, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 170 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sartorius, B.

S. Diez, C. Schmidt, D. Hoffmann, C. Bornholdt, B. Sartorius, H. G. Weber, L. Jiang, and A. Krotkus, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3821 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Saruwatari, M.

T. Morioka, H. Takara, S. Kawanishi, K. Uchiyama, and M. Saruwatari, Electron. Lett. 32, 840 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Scaffetti, S.

P. Borri, S. Scaffetti, J. Mørk, W. Langbein, J. M. Hvam, A. Mecozzi, and F. Martelli, Opt. Commun. 164, 51 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, C.

S. Diez, C. Schmidt, D. Hoffmann, C. Bornholdt, B. Sartorius, H. G. Weber, L. Jiang, and A. Krotkus, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3821 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Diez, C. Schmidt, R. Ludwig, H. G. Weber, K. Obermann, S. Kindt, I. Koltchanov, and K. Petermann, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1131 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Shtaif, M.

M. Shtaif and G. Eisenstein, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1458 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Takara, H.

T. Morioka, H. Takara, S. Kawanishi, K. Uchiyama, and M. Saruwatari, Electron. Lett. 32, 840 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Uchiyama, K.

T. Morioka, H. Takara, S. Kawanishi, K. Uchiyama, and M. Saruwatari, Electron. Lett. 32, 840 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Weber, H. G.

S. Diez, C. Schmidt, D. Hoffmann, C. Bornholdt, B. Sartorius, H. G. Weber, L. Jiang, and A. Krotkus, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3821 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Diez, C. Schmidt, R. Ludwig, H. G. Weber, K. Obermann, S. Kindt, I. Koltchanov, and K. Petermann, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1131 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

S. Diez, C. Schmidt, D. Hoffmann, C. Bornholdt, B. Sartorius, H. G. Weber, L. Jiang, and A. Krotkus, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3821 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Shtaif and G. Eisenstein, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1458 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

T. Morioka, H. Takara, S. Kawanishi, K. Uchiyama, and M. Saruwatari, Electron. Lett. 32, 840 (1996).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (2)

S. Diez, C. Schmidt, R. Ludwig, H. G. Weber, K. Obermann, S. Kindt, I. Koltchanov, and K. Petermann, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1131 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Mecozzi and J. Mørk, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1190 (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

P. Doussiére, P. Garabedian, C. Graver, D. Bonnevie, T. Fillion, E. Derouin, M. Monnot, J. G. Provost, D. Leclerc, and M. Klenk, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 170 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Inoue and H. Kawaguchi, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1566 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (2)

K. L. Hall, G. Lenz, A. M. Darwish, and E. P. Ippen, Opt. Commun. 111, 589 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. Borri, S. Scaffetti, J. Mørk, W. Langbein, J. M. Hvam, A. Mecozzi, and F. Martelli, Opt. Commun. 164, 51 (1999).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup. Pump (1540-nm) and probe (1550-nm) pulses are amplified by erbium-doped fiber amplifiers (EDFA’s) and bandpass filtered by optical bandpass filters (OBF’s) before injection into the SOA. An optical delay line (OD) and polarization controllers (PC’s) are used to align the pulses in time and polarization. The schematic FWM spectrum shows the different wavelength components at the SOA output. OSA, optical spectrum analyzer; ASE, amplified spontaneous emission.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental results. The average input powers were 3 dBm for the pump and -7 dBm for the probe. The saturated gain is the fiber-to-fiber gain, including an estimated total coupling loss of -7 dB.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Calculated results for the conditions used in the experiment.

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