Abstract

We demonstrate a new imaging technique for velocity measurements in particle-laden flows. The technique, particle vaporization velocimetry, is a form of flow tagging based on laser vaporization of absorbing particles at defined locations in the flow. The locations of these tagged regions are then interrogated after a known delay to determine the convective velocity. Results are presented for vaporization of carbonaceous (soot) particles in a nonreacting gas jet and a hydrocarbon flame, with interrogation provided by either elastic scattering or laser-induced incandescence from the soot. The long lifetime of the tagged soot regions >2 ms allows measurements to be made over a wide range of velocities.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. K. Puri, Environmental Implications of Combustion Processes (CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla., 1993), p. 71.
  2. R. Wilson and J. D. Spengler, eds., Particles in Our Air:?Concentrations and Health Effects (Harvard U. Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1996).
  3. M. Kleeman and G. Cass, Atmos. Environ. 32, 2803 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  4. C. Arcoumanis, P. Cutter, and D. S. Whitelaw, Chem. Eng. Res. Des. 76, 124 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  5. B. A. Fischer and J. B. Moss, Combust. Sci. Tech. 138, 43 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. M. K. P. Taylor, ed., Instrumentation for Flows with Combustion (Academic, London, 1993).
  7. P. Buchhave, Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci. 5, 586 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  8. C. E. Willert and M. Gharib, Exper. Fluids 10, 181 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. B. Miles, D. Zhou, B. Zhang, W. R. Lempert, and Z. She, AIAA J. 31, 447 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  10. R. W. Pitz, T. M. Brown, S. P. Nandula, P. A. Skaggs, P. A. DeBarber, and M. S. Brown, Opt. Lett. 21, 755 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. B. Stier and M. M. Koochesfahani, Exp. Fluids 26, 297 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  12. C. Shaddix and K. Smyth, Combust. Flame 107, 418 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. E. Dec, A. O. zur Loye, and D. L. Siebers, SAE paper 910224 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1991).
  14. R. T. Wainner and J. M. Seitzman, AIAA J. 37, 738 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  15. C. J. Dasch, Appl. Opt. 23, 2209 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  16. R. J. Santoro, T. T. Yeh, J. J. Horvath, and H. G. Semerjian, Combust. Sci. Technol. 53, 89 (1987).
    [CrossRef]

1999 (2)

B. Stier and M. M. Koochesfahani, Exp. Fluids 26, 297 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. T. Wainner and J. M. Seitzman, AIAA J. 37, 738 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (3)

M. Kleeman and G. Cass, Atmos. Environ. 32, 2803 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. Arcoumanis, P. Cutter, and D. S. Whitelaw, Chem. Eng. Res. Des. 76, 124 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Fischer and J. B. Moss, Combust. Sci. Tech. 138, 43 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

1993 (1)

R. B. Miles, D. Zhou, B. Zhang, W. R. Lempert, and Z. She, AIAA J. 31, 447 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

P. Buchhave, Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci. 5, 586 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

C. E. Willert and M. Gharib, Exper. Fluids 10, 181 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

R. J. Santoro, T. T. Yeh, J. J. Horvath, and H. G. Semerjian, Combust. Sci. Technol. 53, 89 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

Arcoumanis, C.

C. Arcoumanis, P. Cutter, and D. S. Whitelaw, Chem. Eng. Res. Des. 76, 124 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Brown, M. S.

Brown, T. M.

Buchhave, P.

P. Buchhave, Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci. 5, 586 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Cass, G.

M. Kleeman and G. Cass, Atmos. Environ. 32, 2803 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cutter, P.

C. Arcoumanis, P. Cutter, and D. S. Whitelaw, Chem. Eng. Res. Des. 76, 124 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dasch, C. J.

DeBarber, P. A.

Dec, J. E.

J. E. Dec, A. O. zur Loye, and D. L. Siebers, SAE paper 910224 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1991).

Fischer, B. A.

B. A. Fischer and J. B. Moss, Combust. Sci. Tech. 138, 43 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gharib, M.

C. E. Willert and M. Gharib, Exper. Fluids 10, 181 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Horvath, J. J.

R. J. Santoro, T. T. Yeh, J. J. Horvath, and H. G. Semerjian, Combust. Sci. Technol. 53, 89 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Kleeman, M.

M. Kleeman and G. Cass, Atmos. Environ. 32, 2803 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Koochesfahani, M. M.

B. Stier and M. M. Koochesfahani, Exp. Fluids 26, 297 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lempert, W. R.

R. B. Miles, D. Zhou, B. Zhang, W. R. Lempert, and Z. She, AIAA J. 31, 447 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Miles, R. B.

R. B. Miles, D. Zhou, B. Zhang, W. R. Lempert, and Z. She, AIAA J. 31, 447 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Moss, J. B.

B. A. Fischer and J. B. Moss, Combust. Sci. Tech. 138, 43 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nandula, S. P.

Pitz, R. W.

Puri, K.

K. Puri, Environmental Implications of Combustion Processes (CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla., 1993), p. 71.

Santoro, R. J.

R. J. Santoro, T. T. Yeh, J. J. Horvath, and H. G. Semerjian, Combust. Sci. Technol. 53, 89 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Seitzman, J. M.

R. T. Wainner and J. M. Seitzman, AIAA J. 37, 738 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Semerjian, H. G.

R. J. Santoro, T. T. Yeh, J. J. Horvath, and H. G. Semerjian, Combust. Sci. Technol. 53, 89 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Shaddix, C.

C. Shaddix and K. Smyth, Combust. Flame 107, 418 (1996).
[CrossRef]

She, Z.

R. B. Miles, D. Zhou, B. Zhang, W. R. Lempert, and Z. She, AIAA J. 31, 447 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Siebers, D. L.

J. E. Dec, A. O. zur Loye, and D. L. Siebers, SAE paper 910224 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1991).

Skaggs, P. A.

Smyth, K.

C. Shaddix and K. Smyth, Combust. Flame 107, 418 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Stier, B.

B. Stier and M. M. Koochesfahani, Exp. Fluids 26, 297 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wainner, R. T.

R. T. Wainner and J. M. Seitzman, AIAA J. 37, 738 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Whitelaw, D. S.

C. Arcoumanis, P. Cutter, and D. S. Whitelaw, Chem. Eng. Res. Des. 76, 124 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Willert, C. E.

C. E. Willert and M. Gharib, Exper. Fluids 10, 181 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Yeh, T. T.

R. J. Santoro, T. T. Yeh, J. J. Horvath, and H. G. Semerjian, Combust. Sci. Technol. 53, 89 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, B.

R. B. Miles, D. Zhou, B. Zhang, W. R. Lempert, and Z. She, AIAA J. 31, 447 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, D.

R. B. Miles, D. Zhou, B. Zhang, W. R. Lempert, and Z. She, AIAA J. 31, 447 (1993).
[CrossRef]

zur Loye, A. O.

J. E. Dec, A. O. zur Loye, and D. L. Siebers, SAE paper 910224 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1991).

AIAA J. (2)

R. B. Miles, D. Zhou, B. Zhang, W. R. Lempert, and Z. She, AIAA J. 31, 447 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. T. Wainner and J. M. Seitzman, AIAA J. 37, 738 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Atmos. Environ. (1)

M. Kleeman and G. Cass, Atmos. Environ. 32, 2803 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Eng. Res. Des. (1)

C. Arcoumanis, P. Cutter, and D. S. Whitelaw, Chem. Eng. Res. Des. 76, 124 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Combust. Flame (1)

C. Shaddix and K. Smyth, Combust. Flame 107, 418 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Combust. Sci. Tech. (1)

B. A. Fischer and J. B. Moss, Combust. Sci. Tech. 138, 43 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Combust. Sci. Technol. (1)

R. J. Santoro, T. T. Yeh, J. J. Horvath, and H. G. Semerjian, Combust. Sci. Technol. 53, 89 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Exp. Fluids (1)

B. Stier and M. M. Koochesfahani, Exp. Fluids 26, 297 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci. (1)

P. Buchhave, Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci. 5, 586 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Exper. Fluids (1)

C. E. Willert and M. Gharib, Exper. Fluids 10, 181 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (4)

J. E. Dec, A. O. zur Loye, and D. L. Siebers, SAE paper 910224 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1991).

K. Puri, Environmental Implications of Combustion Processes (CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla., 1993), p. 71.

R. Wilson and J. D. Spengler, eds., Particles in Our Air:?Concentrations and Health Effects (Harvard U. Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1996).

A. M. K. P. Taylor, ed., Instrumentation for Flows with Combustion (Academic, London, 1993).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental PVV arrangement: L1, 280-mm cylindrical lens; L2, 500-mm cylindrical lens; L3, 200-mm cylindrical lens; AP, metallic aperture; F, filter(s); ICCD, intensified CCD camera.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Instantaneous images 26 mm×9.8 mm of the vaporized stripe acquired in the 4-ppb soot exhaust for a 1-ms delay after the marking laser (8 mm×0.45 mm sheet). The nonsimultaneous images are recorded with (a) LII (lens aperture f/2.8; 32-ns gate delay to reject scattering) and (b) elastic scattering (f/11; no delay).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Single-shot images 26 mm×6.5 mm of the vaporized stripe acquired in the diffusion flame for a 1-ms delay after the marking laser (2 mm×0.45 mm sheet). The stripes in (a) and (b) are originally at 10 mm above the burner exit, whereas (c) and (d) are for a 40-mm height. Images (a) and (c) are LII images (f/32; notch filter to reject scattering); (b) and (d) are scattering images (f/32; neutral density, 2.6).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Lifetime of soot tagging in both the soot generator (4.0-ppb case) and the flame (10- and 40-mm heights), based on the change in contrast with time between the marking and interrogation (scattering) lasers.

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