Abstract

The response of antenna-coupled thin-film Ni–NiO–Ni diodes to 633-nm helium–neon laser radiation is investigated. Although these detectors and their integrated dipole antennas are optimized for the detection of mid-infrared radiation, a polarization dependence of the measured response to visible radiation is observed. The strongest signals are measured for the polarization parallel to the dipole antenna axis, which demonstrates antenna operation of the device in the visible in addition to the expected thermal and photoelectric effects. The connection structure of the diode also resonates and contributes to the polarization-dependent signal. The receiving area of the dipole antenna is approximately 2 µm2.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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  1. I. Wilke, W. Herrmann, and F. K. Kneubühl, Appl. Phys. B 58, 87 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  2. C. Fumeaux, W. Herrmann, F. K. Kneubühl, and H. Rothuizen, Infrared Phys. Technol. 39, 123 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  3. E. N. Grossman, J. E. Sauvageau, and D. G. McDonald, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 3225 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. B. Rutledge, S. E. Schwarz, and A. T. Adams, Appl. Phys. 18, 713 (1978).
  5. S. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 303 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  6. O. Acef, L. Hilico, M. Bahoura, F. Nez, and P. De Natale, Opt. Commun. 109, 428 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  7. B.-I. Twu and S. E. Schwarz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 595 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  8. H. Schnatz, B. Lipphardt, J. Helmcke, F. Riehle, and G. Zinner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 18 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. R. D. Grober, R. J. Schoelkopf, and D. E. Prober, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1354 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  10. I. Wilke, Y. Oppliger, W. Herrmann, and F. K. Kneubühl, Appl. Phys. A 58, 329 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. Alda, C. Fumeaux, I. Codreanu, J. A. Schaefer, and G. D. Boreman, Appl. Opt. 38, 3993 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 6th ed. (Pergamon, London, 1980), Chap. 9.
  13. M. Heiblum, S. Wang, J. R. Whinnery, and T. K. Gustafson, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-14, 159 (1978).
    [CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1998 (1)

C. Fumeaux, W. Herrmann, F. K. Kneubühl, and H. Rothuizen, Infrared Phys. Technol. 39, 123 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

R. D. Grober, R. J. Schoelkopf, and D. E. Prober, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1354 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

H. Schnatz, B. Lipphardt, J. Helmcke, F. Riehle, and G. Zinner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 18 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (3)

I. Wilke, W. Herrmann, and F. K. Kneubühl, Appl. Phys. B 58, 87 (1994).
[CrossRef]

O. Acef, L. Hilico, M. Bahoura, F. Nez, and P. De Natale, Opt. Commun. 109, 428 (1994).
[CrossRef]

I. Wilke, Y. Oppliger, W. Herrmann, and F. K. Kneubühl, Appl. Phys. A 58, 329 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

E. N. Grossman, J. E. Sauvageau, and D. G. McDonald, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 3225 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1978 (2)

D. B. Rutledge, S. E. Schwarz, and A. T. Adams, Appl. Phys. 18, 713 (1978).

M. Heiblum, S. Wang, J. R. Whinnery, and T. K. Gustafson, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-14, 159 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

S. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 303 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

B.-I. Twu and S. E. Schwarz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 595 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Acef, O.

O. Acef, L. Hilico, M. Bahoura, F. Nez, and P. De Natale, Opt. Commun. 109, 428 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Adams, A. T.

D. B. Rutledge, S. E. Schwarz, and A. T. Adams, Appl. Phys. 18, 713 (1978).

Alda, J.

Bahoura, M.

O. Acef, L. Hilico, M. Bahoura, F. Nez, and P. De Natale, Opt. Commun. 109, 428 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Boreman, G. D.

Born, M.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 6th ed. (Pergamon, London, 1980), Chap. 9.

Codreanu, I.

De Natale, P.

O. Acef, L. Hilico, M. Bahoura, F. Nez, and P. De Natale, Opt. Commun. 109, 428 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Fumeaux, C.

J. Alda, C. Fumeaux, I. Codreanu, J. A. Schaefer, and G. D. Boreman, Appl. Opt. 38, 3993 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Fumeaux, W. Herrmann, F. K. Kneubühl, and H. Rothuizen, Infrared Phys. Technol. 39, 123 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Grober, R. D.

R. D. Grober, R. J. Schoelkopf, and D. E. Prober, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1354 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Grossman, E. N.

E. N. Grossman, J. E. Sauvageau, and D. G. McDonald, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 3225 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Gustafson, T. K.

M. Heiblum, S. Wang, J. R. Whinnery, and T. K. Gustafson, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-14, 159 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Heiblum, M.

M. Heiblum, S. Wang, J. R. Whinnery, and T. K. Gustafson, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-14, 159 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Helmcke, J.

H. Schnatz, B. Lipphardt, J. Helmcke, F. Riehle, and G. Zinner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 18 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Herrmann, W.

C. Fumeaux, W. Herrmann, F. K. Kneubühl, and H. Rothuizen, Infrared Phys. Technol. 39, 123 (1998).
[CrossRef]

I. Wilke, W. Herrmann, and F. K. Kneubühl, Appl. Phys. B 58, 87 (1994).
[CrossRef]

I. Wilke, Y. Oppliger, W. Herrmann, and F. K. Kneubühl, Appl. Phys. A 58, 329 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hilico, L.

O. Acef, L. Hilico, M. Bahoura, F. Nez, and P. De Natale, Opt. Commun. 109, 428 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kneubühl, F. K.

C. Fumeaux, W. Herrmann, F. K. Kneubühl, and H. Rothuizen, Infrared Phys. Technol. 39, 123 (1998).
[CrossRef]

I. Wilke, W. Herrmann, and F. K. Kneubühl, Appl. Phys. B 58, 87 (1994).
[CrossRef]

I. Wilke, Y. Oppliger, W. Herrmann, and F. K. Kneubühl, Appl. Phys. A 58, 329 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lipphardt, B.

H. Schnatz, B. Lipphardt, J. Helmcke, F. Riehle, and G. Zinner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 18 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McDonald, D. G.

E. N. Grossman, J. E. Sauvageau, and D. G. McDonald, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 3225 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Nez, F.

O. Acef, L. Hilico, M. Bahoura, F. Nez, and P. De Natale, Opt. Commun. 109, 428 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Oppliger, Y.

I. Wilke, Y. Oppliger, W. Herrmann, and F. K. Kneubühl, Appl. Phys. A 58, 329 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Prober, D. E.

R. D. Grober, R. J. Schoelkopf, and D. E. Prober, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1354 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Riehle, F.

H. Schnatz, B. Lipphardt, J. Helmcke, F. Riehle, and G. Zinner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 18 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rothuizen, H.

C. Fumeaux, W. Herrmann, F. K. Kneubühl, and H. Rothuizen, Infrared Phys. Technol. 39, 123 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rutledge, D. B.

D. B. Rutledge, S. E. Schwarz, and A. T. Adams, Appl. Phys. 18, 713 (1978).

Sauvageau, J. E.

E. N. Grossman, J. E. Sauvageau, and D. G. McDonald, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 3225 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Schaefer, J. A.

Schnatz, H.

H. Schnatz, B. Lipphardt, J. Helmcke, F. Riehle, and G. Zinner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 18 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schoelkopf, R. J.

R. D. Grober, R. J. Schoelkopf, and D. E. Prober, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1354 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Schwarz, S. E.

D. B. Rutledge, S. E. Schwarz, and A. T. Adams, Appl. Phys. 18, 713 (1978).

B.-I. Twu and S. E. Schwarz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 595 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Twu, B.-I.

B.-I. Twu and S. E. Schwarz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 595 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S.

M. Heiblum, S. Wang, J. R. Whinnery, and T. K. Gustafson, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-14, 159 (1978).
[CrossRef]

S. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 303 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Whinnery, J. R.

M. Heiblum, S. Wang, J. R. Whinnery, and T. K. Gustafson, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-14, 159 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Wilke, I.

I. Wilke, W. Herrmann, and F. K. Kneubühl, Appl. Phys. B 58, 87 (1994).
[CrossRef]

I. Wilke, Y. Oppliger, W. Herrmann, and F. K. Kneubühl, Appl. Phys. A 58, 329 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, E.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 6th ed. (Pergamon, London, 1980), Chap. 9.

Zinner, G.

H. Schnatz, B. Lipphardt, J. Helmcke, F. Riehle, and G. Zinner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 18 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. (1)

D. B. Rutledge, S. E. Schwarz, and A. T. Adams, Appl. Phys. 18, 713 (1978).

Appl. Phys. A (1)

I. Wilke, Y. Oppliger, W. Herrmann, and F. K. Kneubühl, Appl. Phys. A 58, 329 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

I. Wilke, W. Herrmann, and F. K. Kneubühl, Appl. Phys. B 58, 87 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

S. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 303 (1976).
[CrossRef]

B.-I. Twu and S. E. Schwarz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 595 (1974).
[CrossRef]

E. N. Grossman, J. E. Sauvageau, and D. G. McDonald, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 3225 (1991).
[CrossRef]

R. D. Grober, R. J. Schoelkopf, and D. E. Prober, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1354 (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. Heiblum, S. Wang, J. R. Whinnery, and T. K. Gustafson, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-14, 159 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Infrared Phys. Technol. (1)

C. Fumeaux, W. Herrmann, F. K. Kneubühl, and H. Rothuizen, Infrared Phys. Technol. 39, 123 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

O. Acef, L. Hilico, M. Bahoura, F. Nez, and P. De Natale, Opt. Commun. 109, 428 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

H. Schnatz, B. Lipphardt, J. Helmcke, F. Riehle, and G. Zinner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 18 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 6th ed. (Pergamon, London, 1980), Chap. 9.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Polarization dependence of the signal measured with an antenna-coupled Ni–NiO–Ni diode illuminated with 633-nm wavelength radiation.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Polarization dependence of the response of the connections to the diode.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Receiving area of the Ni–NiO–Ni diode for 633-nm radiation with polarization (a) parallel and (b) perpendicular to the antenna. (c) Difference between the parallel and the perpendicular polarizations. The contours correspond to 10% and 50% of the maximum value.

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