Abstract

Crystalline Ti:sapphire Ti:Al2O3 thin films were grown at low temperatures upon Al2O3 (0001) substrates by reactive crossed-beam laser ablation at 248 nm by use of a liquid Ti–Al alloy target and O2. The films were investigated ex situ by x-ray diffraction, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry. Low-temperature luminescence was identical to that for Ti3+ ions in bulk samples of Al2O3.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  6. P. R. Willmott and F. Antoni, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1394 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  14. R. L. Aggarwal, A. Sanchez, M. M. Stuppi, R. E. Fahey, A. J. Strauss, W. R. Rapoport, and C. P. Khattak, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 1003 (1988).
    [CrossRef]

1998 (1)

P. R. Willmott and F. Antoni, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1394 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

P. R. Willmott, R. Timm, and J. R. Huber, J. Appl. Phys. 82, 2082 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Anderson, R. W. Eason, M. Jelinek, C. Grivas, D. Lane, K. Rogers, L. M. B. Hickey, and C. Fotakis, Thin Solid Films 300, 68 (1997); A. A. Anderson, R. W. Eason, L. M. B. Hickey, M. Jelinek, C. Grivas, D. S. Gill, and N. A. Vainos, Opt. Lett. 22, 1556 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

J. T. Mayer, U. Diebold, T. E. Madey, and E. Garfunkel, J. Electron. Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 73, 1 (1995). See, in particular, Table 1 for a summary of XPS data on the oxidation states of Ti.
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

C. Oviedo, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 5, A153 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

J. A. Greer and H. J. van Hook, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 169, 463 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

H. Sankur, W. J. Gunning, J. DeNatale, and J. F. Flintoff, J. Appl. Phys. 65, 2475 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

R. L. Aggarwal, A. Sanchez, M. M. Stuppi, R. E. Fahey, A. J. Strauss, W. R. Rapoport, and C. P. Khattak, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 1003 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

1976 (1)

T. S. Bessonova, M. P. Stanislavskii, and V. Ya. Khaimov-Malkov, Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 41, 87 (1976).

1963 (1)

J. F. Ready, Appl. Phys. Lett. 3, 11 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Aggarwal, R. L.

R. L. Aggarwal, A. Sanchez, M. M. Stuppi, R. E. Fahey, A. J. Strauss, W. R. Rapoport, and C. P. Khattak, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 1003 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, A. A.

A. A. Anderson, R. W. Eason, M. Jelinek, C. Grivas, D. Lane, K. Rogers, L. M. B. Hickey, and C. Fotakis, Thin Solid Films 300, 68 (1997); A. A. Anderson, R. W. Eason, L. M. B. Hickey, M. Jelinek, C. Grivas, D. S. Gill, and N. A. Vainos, Opt. Lett. 22, 1556 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Antoni, F.

P. R. Willmott and F. Antoni, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1394 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bessonova, T. S.

T. S. Bessonova, M. P. Stanislavskii, and V. Ya. Khaimov-Malkov, Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 41, 87 (1976).

Castner, D. G.

B. D. Ratner and D. G. Castner, in Surface Analysis—The Principal Techniques, J. C. Vickerman, ed. (Wiley, Chichester, UK, 1997), p. 43.

Chen, L.-C.

L.-C. Chen, in Pulsed Laser Deposition of Thin Films, D. B. Chrisey and G. K. Hubler, eds. (Wiley, New York, 1994), p. 167.

DeNatale, J.

H. Sankur, W. J. Gunning, J. DeNatale, and J. F. Flintoff, J. Appl. Phys. 65, 2475 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Diebold, U.

J. T. Mayer, U. Diebold, T. E. Madey, and E. Garfunkel, J. Electron. Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 73, 1 (1995). See, in particular, Table 1 for a summary of XPS data on the oxidation states of Ti.
[CrossRef]

Eason, R. W.

A. A. Anderson, R. W. Eason, M. Jelinek, C. Grivas, D. Lane, K. Rogers, L. M. B. Hickey, and C. Fotakis, Thin Solid Films 300, 68 (1997); A. A. Anderson, R. W. Eason, L. M. B. Hickey, M. Jelinek, C. Grivas, D. S. Gill, and N. A. Vainos, Opt. Lett. 22, 1556 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fahey, R. E.

R. L. Aggarwal, A. Sanchez, M. M. Stuppi, R. E. Fahey, A. J. Strauss, W. R. Rapoport, and C. P. Khattak, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 1003 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Flintoff, J. F.

H. Sankur, W. J. Gunning, J. DeNatale, and J. F. Flintoff, J. Appl. Phys. 65, 2475 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Fotakis, C.

A. A. Anderson, R. W. Eason, M. Jelinek, C. Grivas, D. Lane, K. Rogers, L. M. B. Hickey, and C. Fotakis, Thin Solid Films 300, 68 (1997); A. A. Anderson, R. W. Eason, L. M. B. Hickey, M. Jelinek, C. Grivas, D. S. Gill, and N. A. Vainos, Opt. Lett. 22, 1556 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Garfunkel, E.

J. T. Mayer, U. Diebold, T. E. Madey, and E. Garfunkel, J. Electron. Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 73, 1 (1995). See, in particular, Table 1 for a summary of XPS data on the oxidation states of Ti.
[CrossRef]

Greer, J. A.

J. A. Greer and H. J. van Hook, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 169, 463 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Grivas, C.

A. A. Anderson, R. W. Eason, M. Jelinek, C. Grivas, D. Lane, K. Rogers, L. M. B. Hickey, and C. Fotakis, Thin Solid Films 300, 68 (1997); A. A. Anderson, R. W. Eason, L. M. B. Hickey, M. Jelinek, C. Grivas, D. S. Gill, and N. A. Vainos, Opt. Lett. 22, 1556 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gunning, W. J.

H. Sankur, W. J. Gunning, J. DeNatale, and J. F. Flintoff, J. Appl. Phys. 65, 2475 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Hickey, L. M. B.

A. A. Anderson, R. W. Eason, M. Jelinek, C. Grivas, D. Lane, K. Rogers, L. M. B. Hickey, and C. Fotakis, Thin Solid Films 300, 68 (1997); A. A. Anderson, R. W. Eason, L. M. B. Hickey, M. Jelinek, C. Grivas, D. S. Gill, and N. A. Vainos, Opt. Lett. 22, 1556 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Huber, J. R.

P. R. Willmott, R. Timm, and J. R. Huber, J. Appl. Phys. 82, 2082 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jelinek, M.

A. A. Anderson, R. W. Eason, M. Jelinek, C. Grivas, D. Lane, K. Rogers, L. M. B. Hickey, and C. Fotakis, Thin Solid Films 300, 68 (1997); A. A. Anderson, R. W. Eason, L. M. B. Hickey, M. Jelinek, C. Grivas, D. S. Gill, and N. A. Vainos, Opt. Lett. 22, 1556 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Khaimov-Malkov, V. Ya.

T. S. Bessonova, M. P. Stanislavskii, and V. Ya. Khaimov-Malkov, Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 41, 87 (1976).

Khattak, C. P.

R. L. Aggarwal, A. Sanchez, M. M. Stuppi, R. E. Fahey, A. J. Strauss, W. R. Rapoport, and C. P. Khattak, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 1003 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Lane, D.

A. A. Anderson, R. W. Eason, M. Jelinek, C. Grivas, D. Lane, K. Rogers, L. M. B. Hickey, and C. Fotakis, Thin Solid Films 300, 68 (1997); A. A. Anderson, R. W. Eason, L. M. B. Hickey, M. Jelinek, C. Grivas, D. S. Gill, and N. A. Vainos, Opt. Lett. 22, 1556 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Madey, T. E.

J. T. Mayer, U. Diebold, T. E. Madey, and E. Garfunkel, J. Electron. Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 73, 1 (1995). See, in particular, Table 1 for a summary of XPS data on the oxidation states of Ti.
[CrossRef]

Mayer, J. T.

J. T. Mayer, U. Diebold, T. E. Madey, and E. Garfunkel, J. Electron. Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 73, 1 (1995). See, in particular, Table 1 for a summary of XPS data on the oxidation states of Ti.
[CrossRef]

McAlister, A. J.

J. L. Murray and A. J. McAlister, in Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams, T. B. Massalski, ed. (American Society of Metals, Materials Park, Oh., 1986), Vol. I, p. 173; J. L. Murray, Metall. Trans. A 19, 243 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Moulton, P. F.

Murray, J. L.

J. L. Murray and A. J. McAlister, in Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams, T. B. Massalski, ed. (American Society of Metals, Materials Park, Oh., 1986), Vol. I, p. 173; J. L. Murray, Metall. Trans. A 19, 243 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Oviedo, C.

C. Oviedo, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 5, A153 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Rapoport, W. R.

R. L. Aggarwal, A. Sanchez, M. M. Stuppi, R. E. Fahey, A. J. Strauss, W. R. Rapoport, and C. P. Khattak, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 1003 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Ratner, B. D.

B. D. Ratner and D. G. Castner, in Surface Analysis—The Principal Techniques, J. C. Vickerman, ed. (Wiley, Chichester, UK, 1997), p. 43.

Ready, J. F.

J. F. Ready, Appl. Phys. Lett. 3, 11 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Rogers, K.

A. A. Anderson, R. W. Eason, M. Jelinek, C. Grivas, D. Lane, K. Rogers, L. M. B. Hickey, and C. Fotakis, Thin Solid Films 300, 68 (1997); A. A. Anderson, R. W. Eason, L. M. B. Hickey, M. Jelinek, C. Grivas, D. S. Gill, and N. A. Vainos, Opt. Lett. 22, 1556 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sanchez, A.

R. L. Aggarwal, A. Sanchez, M. M. Stuppi, R. E. Fahey, A. J. Strauss, W. R. Rapoport, and C. P. Khattak, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 1003 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Sankur, H.

H. Sankur, W. J. Gunning, J. DeNatale, and J. F. Flintoff, J. Appl. Phys. 65, 2475 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Stanislavskii, M. P.

T. S. Bessonova, M. P. Stanislavskii, and V. Ya. Khaimov-Malkov, Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 41, 87 (1976).

Strauss, A. J.

R. L. Aggarwal, A. Sanchez, M. M. Stuppi, R. E. Fahey, A. J. Strauss, W. R. Rapoport, and C. P. Khattak, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 1003 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Stuppi, M. M.

R. L. Aggarwal, A. Sanchez, M. M. Stuppi, R. E. Fahey, A. J. Strauss, W. R. Rapoport, and C. P. Khattak, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 1003 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Timm, R.

P. R. Willmott, R. Timm, and J. R. Huber, J. Appl. Phys. 82, 2082 (1997).
[CrossRef]

van Hook, H. J.

J. A. Greer and H. J. van Hook, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 169, 463 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Willmott, P. R.

P. R. Willmott and F. Antoni, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1394 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. R. Willmott, R. Timm, and J. R. Huber, J. Appl. Phys. 82, 2082 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

P. R. Willmott and F. Antoni, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1394 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Ready, Appl. Phys. Lett. 3, 11 (1963).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. L. Aggarwal, A. Sanchez, M. M. Stuppi, R. E. Fahey, A. J. Strauss, W. R. Rapoport, and C. P. Khattak, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 1003 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

P. R. Willmott, R. Timm, and J. R. Huber, J. Appl. Phys. 82, 2082 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. Sankur, W. J. Gunning, J. DeNatale, and J. F. Flintoff, J. Appl. Phys. 65, 2475 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Electron. Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. (1)

J. T. Mayer, U. Diebold, T. E. Madey, and E. Garfunkel, J. Electron. Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 73, 1 (1995). See, in particular, Table 1 for a summary of XPS data on the oxidation states of Ti.
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Phys. Condens. Matter (1)

C. Oviedo, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 5, A153 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. (1)

J. A. Greer and H. J. van Hook, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 169, 463 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) (1)

T. S. Bessonova, M. P. Stanislavskii, and V. Ya. Khaimov-Malkov, Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 41, 87 (1976).

Thin Solid Films (1)

A. A. Anderson, R. W. Eason, M. Jelinek, C. Grivas, D. Lane, K. Rogers, L. M. B. Hickey, and C. Fotakis, Thin Solid Films 300, 68 (1997); A. A. Anderson, R. W. Eason, L. M. B. Hickey, M. Jelinek, C. Grivas, D. S. Gill, and N. A. Vainos, Opt. Lett. 22, 1556 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

L.-C. Chen, in Pulsed Laser Deposition of Thin Films, D. B. Chrisey and G. K. Hubler, eds. (Wiley, New York, 1994), p. 167.

J. L. Murray and A. J. McAlister, in Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams, T. B. Massalski, ed. (American Society of Metals, Materials Park, Oh., 1986), Vol. I, p. 173; J. L. Murray, Metall. Trans. A 19, 243 (1988).
[CrossRef]

B. D. Ratner and D. G. Castner, in Surface Analysis—The Principal Techniques, J. C. Vickerman, ed. (Wiley, Chichester, UK, 1997), p. 43.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the experimental setup: PV O2, pulsed valve containing O2; SH, platinum or rhenium wire substrate heater with Al2O3 (0001) substrate; LT, liquid Ti–Al alloy ablation target. The target is melted on a hot plate that is made by passage of a 5-A current through a 10 mm×10 mm×0.38 mm Si wafer that is clamped with a 10 mm×10 mm×0.5 mm polycrystalline sapphire wafer to Pt-coated Ti electrodes (E’s). The liquid alloy is isolated from the electrodes by a ceramic ring (CR). Triggering between the pulsed valve and the ablation laser is synchronized by a trigger delay unit.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

XPS spectra of a 800-nm thick Ti:Al2O3 (0001) film grown at 670 °C by use of monochromatic Al Kα radiation. The spectra have been adjusted for charging shifts. Inset, the Ti 2p signals for films grown at 670 and 1100 °C. Note the 1eV shift to higher binding energy for the film grown at 1100 °C.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Luminescence spectra of unannealed Ti:Al2O3 deposited at 670 °C. Top trace f+s, the total emission from film and substrate. The signal from the film (f) is obtained analytically by subtraction of the signal of a fresh substrate (s) from the top trace and is compared with the signal from a bulk single crystal of Ti:Al2O3 (b). Because of the 300-times-greater peak intensity of the ruby R lines originating from the substrate, this region is skipped in trace f because of the poor signal-to-noise ratio. Inset, zero-phonon lines of the film and the bulk reference. The sharp line at 676 nm is present in all films grown at low temperature and disappears on annealing.

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