Abstract

We present a diode-pumped Nd:glass fiber laser, emitting at 1060 nm, that is passively mode locked by fast nonlinear loss in low-temperature-grown GaAs (LT-GaAs). This new mode-locking mechanism is based on intensity-dependent defocusing in LT-GaAs that occurs after nonresonant generation of free carriers by two-photon absorption. Mode locking is self-starting and produces pulses as short as 4.1 ps.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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  1. U. Keller, W. H. Knox, and G. W. ’t Hooft, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2123 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  2. U. Keller, T. H. Chiu, J. F. Ferguson, and K. J. Weingarten, in Ultrafast Electronics and Optoelectronics, J. Shah and U. Mishra, eds., Vol. 14 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 155–157.
  3. L. R. Brovelli, U. Keller, and T. H. Chiu, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 311 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  4. U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Honninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 435 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  5. I. P. Bilinsky, J. G. Fujimoto, J. N. Walpole, and L. J. Missaggia, Opt. Lett. 23, 1766 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  6. C. Radzewicz, G. W. Pearson, and J. S. Krasinski, Opt. Commun. 102, 464 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  7. F. Krausz, T. Brabec, and Ch. Spielmann, Opt. Lett. 16, 235 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. H. A. Haus, J. G. Fujimoto, and E. P. Ippen, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2086 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. D. Benjamin, H. S. Loka, A. Othonos, and P. W. E. Smith, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2544 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  10. E. Yablonovich, T. Gmitter, J. P. Harbison, and R. Bhat, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 2222 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Wegmüller, M. Schürch, W. Hodel, and H. P. Weber, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 14 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  12. H. S. Loka, S. D. Benjamin, and P. W. E. Smith, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 1426 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  13. I. Androsch, G. Berger, and P. Glas, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 8 of 1994 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), pp. 121–122.
  14. T. B. Norris, W. Sha, W. J. Schaff, X. J. Song, Z. Liliental-Weber, and E. R. Weber, in Ultrafast Electronics and Optoelectronics, J. Shah and U. Mishra, eds., Vol. 14 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 244–247.
  15. A. A. Said, M. Sheik-Bahae, D. J. Hagan, T. H. Wei, J. Wang, J. Young, and E. W. Van Stryland, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 405 (1992).
    [CrossRef]

1998 (3)

I. P. Bilinsky, J. G. Fujimoto, J. N. Walpole, and L. J. Missaggia, Opt. Lett. 23, 1766 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Wegmüller, M. Schürch, W. Hodel, and H. P. Weber, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 14 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Loka, S. D. Benjamin, and P. W. E. Smith, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 1426 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Honninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 435 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Benjamin, H. S. Loka, A. Othonos, and P. W. E. Smith, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2544 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

1993 (1)

C. Radzewicz, G. W. Pearson, and J. S. Krasinski, Opt. Commun. 102, 464 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (3)

U. Keller, W. H. Knox, and G. W. ’t Hooft, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2123 (1992).
[CrossRef]

H. A. Haus, J. G. Fujimoto, and E. P. Ippen, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2086 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Said, M. Sheik-Bahae, D. J. Hagan, T. H. Wei, J. Wang, J. Young, and E. W. Van Stryland, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 405 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

1987 (1)

E. Yablonovich, T. Gmitter, J. P. Harbison, and R. Bhat, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 2222 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Androsch, I.

I. Androsch, G. Berger, and P. Glas, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 8 of 1994 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), pp. 121–122.

Aus der Au, J.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Honninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 435 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Benjamin, S. D.

H. S. Loka, S. D. Benjamin, and P. W. E. Smith, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 1426 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Benjamin, H. S. Loka, A. Othonos, and P. W. E. Smith, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2544 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Berger, G.

I. Androsch, G. Berger, and P. Glas, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 8 of 1994 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), pp. 121–122.

Bhat, R.

E. Yablonovich, T. Gmitter, J. P. Harbison, and R. Bhat, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 2222 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Bilinsky, I. P.

Brabec, T.

Braun, B.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Honninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 435 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Brovelli, L. R.

Chiu, T. H.

L. R. Brovelli, U. Keller, and T. H. Chiu, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 311 (1995).
[CrossRef]

U. Keller, T. H. Chiu, J. F. Ferguson, and K. J. Weingarten, in Ultrafast Electronics and Optoelectronics, J. Shah and U. Mishra, eds., Vol. 14 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 155–157.

Ferguson, J. F.

U. Keller, T. H. Chiu, J. F. Ferguson, and K. J. Weingarten, in Ultrafast Electronics and Optoelectronics, J. Shah and U. Mishra, eds., Vol. 14 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 155–157.

Fluck, R.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Honninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 435 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Fujimoto, J. G.

I. P. Bilinsky, J. G. Fujimoto, J. N. Walpole, and L. J. Missaggia, Opt. Lett. 23, 1766 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. A. Haus, J. G. Fujimoto, and E. P. Ippen, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2086 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Glas, P.

I. Androsch, G. Berger, and P. Glas, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 8 of 1994 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), pp. 121–122.

Gmitter, T.

E. Yablonovich, T. Gmitter, J. P. Harbison, and R. Bhat, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 2222 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Hagan, D. J.

Harbison, J. P.

E. Yablonovich, T. Gmitter, J. P. Harbison, and R. Bhat, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 2222 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Haus, H. A.

H. A. Haus, J. G. Fujimoto, and E. P. Ippen, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2086 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Hodel, W.

M. Wegmüller, M. Schürch, W. Hodel, and H. P. Weber, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 14 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Honninger, C.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Honninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 435 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hooft, G. W. ’t

U. Keller, W. H. Knox, and G. W. ’t Hooft, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2123 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ippen, E. P.

H. A. Haus, J. G. Fujimoto, and E. P. Ippen, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2086 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Jung, I. D.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Honninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 435 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kärtner, F. X.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Honninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 435 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Keller, U.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Honninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 435 (1996).
[CrossRef]

L. R. Brovelli, U. Keller, and T. H. Chiu, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 311 (1995).
[CrossRef]

U. Keller, W. H. Knox, and G. W. ’t Hooft, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2123 (1992).
[CrossRef]

U. Keller, T. H. Chiu, J. F. Ferguson, and K. J. Weingarten, in Ultrafast Electronics and Optoelectronics, J. Shah and U. Mishra, eds., Vol. 14 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 155–157.

Knox, W. H.

U. Keller, W. H. Knox, and G. W. ’t Hooft, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2123 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kopf, D.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Honninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 435 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Krasinski, J. S.

C. Radzewicz, G. W. Pearson, and J. S. Krasinski, Opt. Commun. 102, 464 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Krausz, F.

Liliental-Weber, Z.

T. B. Norris, W. Sha, W. J. Schaff, X. J. Song, Z. Liliental-Weber, and E. R. Weber, in Ultrafast Electronics and Optoelectronics, J. Shah and U. Mishra, eds., Vol. 14 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 244–247.

Loka, H. S.

H. S. Loka, S. D. Benjamin, and P. W. E. Smith, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 1426 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Benjamin, H. S. Loka, A. Othonos, and P. W. E. Smith, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2544 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Matuschek, N.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Honninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 435 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Missaggia, L. J.

Norris, T. B.

T. B. Norris, W. Sha, W. J. Schaff, X. J. Song, Z. Liliental-Weber, and E. R. Weber, in Ultrafast Electronics and Optoelectronics, J. Shah and U. Mishra, eds., Vol. 14 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 244–247.

Othonos, A.

S. D. Benjamin, H. S. Loka, A. Othonos, and P. W. E. Smith, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2544 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Pearson, G. W.

C. Radzewicz, G. W. Pearson, and J. S. Krasinski, Opt. Commun. 102, 464 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Radzewicz, C.

C. Radzewicz, G. W. Pearson, and J. S. Krasinski, Opt. Commun. 102, 464 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Said, A. A.

Schaff, W. J.

T. B. Norris, W. Sha, W. J. Schaff, X. J. Song, Z. Liliental-Weber, and E. R. Weber, in Ultrafast Electronics and Optoelectronics, J. Shah and U. Mishra, eds., Vol. 14 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 244–247.

Schürch, M.

M. Wegmüller, M. Schürch, W. Hodel, and H. P. Weber, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 14 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sha, W.

T. B. Norris, W. Sha, W. J. Schaff, X. J. Song, Z. Liliental-Weber, and E. R. Weber, in Ultrafast Electronics and Optoelectronics, J. Shah and U. Mishra, eds., Vol. 14 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 244–247.

Sheik-Bahae, M.

Smith, P. W. E.

H. S. Loka, S. D. Benjamin, and P. W. E. Smith, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 1426 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Benjamin, H. S. Loka, A. Othonos, and P. W. E. Smith, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2544 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Song, X. J.

T. B. Norris, W. Sha, W. J. Schaff, X. J. Song, Z. Liliental-Weber, and E. R. Weber, in Ultrafast Electronics and Optoelectronics, J. Shah and U. Mishra, eds., Vol. 14 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 244–247.

Spielmann, Ch.

Van Stryland, E. W.

Walpole, J. N.

Wang, J.

Weber, E. R.

T. B. Norris, W. Sha, W. J. Schaff, X. J. Song, Z. Liliental-Weber, and E. R. Weber, in Ultrafast Electronics and Optoelectronics, J. Shah and U. Mishra, eds., Vol. 14 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 244–247.

Weber, H. P.

M. Wegmüller, M. Schürch, W. Hodel, and H. P. Weber, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 14 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wegmüller, M.

M. Wegmüller, M. Schürch, W. Hodel, and H. P. Weber, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 14 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wei, T. H.

Weingarten, K. J.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Honninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 435 (1996).
[CrossRef]

U. Keller, T. H. Chiu, J. F. Ferguson, and K. J. Weingarten, in Ultrafast Electronics and Optoelectronics, J. Shah and U. Mishra, eds., Vol. 14 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 155–157.

Yablonovich, E.

E. Yablonovich, T. Gmitter, J. P. Harbison, and R. Bhat, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 2222 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Young, J.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

S. D. Benjamin, H. S. Loka, A. Othonos, and P. W. E. Smith, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2544 (1996).
[CrossRef]

E. Yablonovich, T. Gmitter, J. P. Harbison, and R. Bhat, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 2222 (1987).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (4)

M. Wegmüller, M. Schürch, W. Hodel, and H. P. Weber, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 14 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Loka, S. D. Benjamin, and P. W. E. Smith, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 1426 (1998).
[CrossRef]

U. Keller, W. H. Knox, and G. W. ’t Hooft, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2123 (1992).
[CrossRef]

H. A. Haus, J. G. Fujimoto, and E. P. Ippen, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2086 (1992).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Honninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 435 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Opt. Commun. (1)

C. Radzewicz, G. W. Pearson, and J. S. Krasinski, Opt. Commun. 102, 464 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Other (3)

U. Keller, T. H. Chiu, J. F. Ferguson, and K. J. Weingarten, in Ultrafast Electronics and Optoelectronics, J. Shah and U. Mishra, eds., Vol. 14 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 155–157.

I. Androsch, G. Berger, and P. Glas, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 8 of 1994 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), pp. 121–122.

T. B. Norris, W. Sha, W. J. Schaff, X. J. Song, Z. Liliental-Weber, and E. R. Weber, in Ultrafast Electronics and Optoelectronics, J. Shah and U. Mishra, eds., Vol. 14 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 244–247.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Experimental setup of the mode-locked fiber laser. (b) Schematic of the mode-locking technique based on defocusing in the thin LT-GaAs layer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Autocorrelation trace of picosecond pulses generated with an intracavity compressor. A noncollinear background-free autocorrelation geometry was used. Circles, experimental results; solid curve, an ideal 4.1ps sech2 fit. Inset, autocorrelation trace without the compression gratings (FWHM, 34 ps).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Emission spectra of the fiber laser for (top) cw operation and (bottom) mode-locked operation.

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