Abstract

We report experimental investigations in which quasi-optical methods were used to efficiently couple freely propagating, optoelectronically generated, subpicosecond pulses of terahertz (THz) radiation into submillimeter circular metal tubes (waveguides) and, consequently, to measure the transmitted pulses from these waveguides. We observe very dispersive low-loss propagation over the frequency band from 0.65 to 3.5 THz, with frequency-dependent group velocities vg ranging from c/4 to c and phase velocities vp from 4c to c, where vgvp=c2. The linearly polarized incoming THz pulses couple significantly only into the TE11, TM11, and TE12 modes of the utilized 24- and 4-mm-long stainless-steel tubes, with inside diameters of 240 and 280 µm, respectively.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. D. Grischkowsky, I. N. Duling, J. C. Chen, and C.-C. Chi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 1663 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. H. Roskos, M. C. Nuss, K. W. Goossen, D. W. Kisker, A. E. White, K. T. Short, D. C. Jacobson, and J. M. Poate, App. Phys. Lett. 58, 2604 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J.-M. Heiliger, M. Nagel, H. G. Roskos, H. Kurz, F. Schnieder, W. Heinrich, R. Hey, and K. Ploog, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2233 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. Grischkowsky, S. Keiding, M. van Exter, and Ch. Fattinger, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 2006 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. van Exter and D. Grischkowsky, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 38, 1684 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. Nahata and T. F. Heinz, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 701 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. Bromage, S. Radic, G. P. Agrawal, C. R. Stroud, P. M. Fauchet, and R. Sobolewski, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 1399 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  8. C. E. Collins, J. W. Digby, R. D. Pollard, R. E. Miles, G. M. Parkhurst, J. M. Chamberlain, D. P. Steenson, N. J. Cronin, L. S. Karatzas, and J. W. Bowen, in IEEE Microwave Theory and Technology Symposium Digest (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1997), Vol. 3, p. 1439.
  9. J. C. Slater, Rev, Mod. Phys. 18, 441 (1946).
    [CrossRef]
  10. N. Marcuvitz, Waveguide Handbook (Peregrinus, London, 1986).
    [CrossRef]
  11. S. Ramo, J. R. Whinnery, and T. van Duzer, Fields and Waves in Communication Electronics, 3rd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1994).
  12. D. R. Dykaar, A. F. J. Levi, and M. Anzlowar, Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 1123 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  13. H.-J. Cheng, J. F. Whitaker, T. M. Weller, and L. P. B. Katehi, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 42, 2399 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  14. R. W. McGowan and D. Grischkowsky, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2842 (1997).
    [CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1997 (2)

J.-M. Heiliger, M. Nagel, H. G. Roskos, H. Kurz, F. Schnieder, W. Heinrich, R. Hey, and K. Ploog, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2233 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. W. McGowan and D. Grischkowsky, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2842 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

A. Nahata and T. F. Heinz, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 701 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

H.-J. Cheng, J. F. Whitaker, T. M. Weller, and L. P. B. Katehi, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 42, 2399 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

H. Roskos, M. C. Nuss, K. W. Goossen, D. W. Kisker, A. E. White, K. T. Short, D. C. Jacobson, and J. M. Poate, App. Phys. Lett. 58, 2604 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (3)

D. Grischkowsky, S. Keiding, M. van Exter, and Ch. Fattinger, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 2006 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. van Exter and D. Grischkowsky, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 38, 1684 (1990).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Dykaar, A. F. J. Levi, and M. Anzlowar, Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 1123 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

D. Grischkowsky, I. N. Duling, J. C. Chen, and C.-C. Chi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 1663 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1946 (1)

J. C. Slater, Rev, Mod. Phys. 18, 441 (1946).
[CrossRef]

Agrawal, G. P.

Anzlowar, M.

D. R. Dykaar, A. F. J. Levi, and M. Anzlowar, Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 1123 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Bowen, J. W.

C. E. Collins, J. W. Digby, R. D. Pollard, R. E. Miles, G. M. Parkhurst, J. M. Chamberlain, D. P. Steenson, N. J. Cronin, L. S. Karatzas, and J. W. Bowen, in IEEE Microwave Theory and Technology Symposium Digest (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1997), Vol. 3, p. 1439.

Bromage, J.

Chamberlain, J. M.

C. E. Collins, J. W. Digby, R. D. Pollard, R. E. Miles, G. M. Parkhurst, J. M. Chamberlain, D. P. Steenson, N. J. Cronin, L. S. Karatzas, and J. W. Bowen, in IEEE Microwave Theory and Technology Symposium Digest (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1997), Vol. 3, p. 1439.

Chen, J. C.

D. Grischkowsky, I. N. Duling, J. C. Chen, and C.-C. Chi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 1663 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheng, H.-J.

H.-J. Cheng, J. F. Whitaker, T. M. Weller, and L. P. B. Katehi, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 42, 2399 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Chi, C.-C.

D. Grischkowsky, I. N. Duling, J. C. Chen, and C.-C. Chi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 1663 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Collins, C. E.

C. E. Collins, J. W. Digby, R. D. Pollard, R. E. Miles, G. M. Parkhurst, J. M. Chamberlain, D. P. Steenson, N. J. Cronin, L. S. Karatzas, and J. W. Bowen, in IEEE Microwave Theory and Technology Symposium Digest (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1997), Vol. 3, p. 1439.

Cronin, N. J.

C. E. Collins, J. W. Digby, R. D. Pollard, R. E. Miles, G. M. Parkhurst, J. M. Chamberlain, D. P. Steenson, N. J. Cronin, L. S. Karatzas, and J. W. Bowen, in IEEE Microwave Theory and Technology Symposium Digest (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1997), Vol. 3, p. 1439.

Digby, J. W.

C. E. Collins, J. W. Digby, R. D. Pollard, R. E. Miles, G. M. Parkhurst, J. M. Chamberlain, D. P. Steenson, N. J. Cronin, L. S. Karatzas, and J. W. Bowen, in IEEE Microwave Theory and Technology Symposium Digest (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1997), Vol. 3, p. 1439.

Duling, I. N.

D. Grischkowsky, I. N. Duling, J. C. Chen, and C.-C. Chi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 1663 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dykaar, D. R.

D. R. Dykaar, A. F. J. Levi, and M. Anzlowar, Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 1123 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Fattinger, Ch.

Fauchet, P. M.

Goossen, K. W.

H. Roskos, M. C. Nuss, K. W. Goossen, D. W. Kisker, A. E. White, K. T. Short, D. C. Jacobson, and J. M. Poate, App. Phys. Lett. 58, 2604 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Grischkowsky, D.

R. W. McGowan and D. Grischkowsky, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2842 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Grischkowsky, S. Keiding, M. van Exter, and Ch. Fattinger, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 2006 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. van Exter and D. Grischkowsky, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 38, 1684 (1990).
[CrossRef]

D. Grischkowsky, I. N. Duling, J. C. Chen, and C.-C. Chi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 1663 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heiliger, J.-M.

J.-M. Heiliger, M. Nagel, H. G. Roskos, H. Kurz, F. Schnieder, W. Heinrich, R. Hey, and K. Ploog, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2233 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Heinrich, W.

J.-M. Heiliger, M. Nagel, H. G. Roskos, H. Kurz, F. Schnieder, W. Heinrich, R. Hey, and K. Ploog, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2233 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Heinz, T. F.

A. Nahata and T. F. Heinz, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 701 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hey, R.

J.-M. Heiliger, M. Nagel, H. G. Roskos, H. Kurz, F. Schnieder, W. Heinrich, R. Hey, and K. Ploog, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2233 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jacobson, D. C.

H. Roskos, M. C. Nuss, K. W. Goossen, D. W. Kisker, A. E. White, K. T. Short, D. C. Jacobson, and J. M. Poate, App. Phys. Lett. 58, 2604 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Karatzas, L. S.

C. E. Collins, J. W. Digby, R. D. Pollard, R. E. Miles, G. M. Parkhurst, J. M. Chamberlain, D. P. Steenson, N. J. Cronin, L. S. Karatzas, and J. W. Bowen, in IEEE Microwave Theory and Technology Symposium Digest (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1997), Vol. 3, p. 1439.

Katehi, L. P. B.

H.-J. Cheng, J. F. Whitaker, T. M. Weller, and L. P. B. Katehi, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 42, 2399 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Keiding, S.

Kisker, D. W.

H. Roskos, M. C. Nuss, K. W. Goossen, D. W. Kisker, A. E. White, K. T. Short, D. C. Jacobson, and J. M. Poate, App. Phys. Lett. 58, 2604 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kurz, H.

J.-M. Heiliger, M. Nagel, H. G. Roskos, H. Kurz, F. Schnieder, W. Heinrich, R. Hey, and K. Ploog, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2233 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Levi, A. F. J.

D. R. Dykaar, A. F. J. Levi, and M. Anzlowar, Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 1123 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Marcuvitz, N.

N. Marcuvitz, Waveguide Handbook (Peregrinus, London, 1986).
[CrossRef]

McGowan, R. W.

R. W. McGowan and D. Grischkowsky, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2842 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Miles, R. E.

C. E. Collins, J. W. Digby, R. D. Pollard, R. E. Miles, G. M. Parkhurst, J. M. Chamberlain, D. P. Steenson, N. J. Cronin, L. S. Karatzas, and J. W. Bowen, in IEEE Microwave Theory and Technology Symposium Digest (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1997), Vol. 3, p. 1439.

Nagel, M.

J.-M. Heiliger, M. Nagel, H. G. Roskos, H. Kurz, F. Schnieder, W. Heinrich, R. Hey, and K. Ploog, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2233 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nahata, A.

A. Nahata and T. F. Heinz, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 701 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nuss, M. C.

H. Roskos, M. C. Nuss, K. W. Goossen, D. W. Kisker, A. E. White, K. T. Short, D. C. Jacobson, and J. M. Poate, App. Phys. Lett. 58, 2604 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Parkhurst, G. M.

C. E. Collins, J. W. Digby, R. D. Pollard, R. E. Miles, G. M. Parkhurst, J. M. Chamberlain, D. P. Steenson, N. J. Cronin, L. S. Karatzas, and J. W. Bowen, in IEEE Microwave Theory and Technology Symposium Digest (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1997), Vol. 3, p. 1439.

Ploog, K.

J.-M. Heiliger, M. Nagel, H. G. Roskos, H. Kurz, F. Schnieder, W. Heinrich, R. Hey, and K. Ploog, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2233 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Poate, J. M.

H. Roskos, M. C. Nuss, K. W. Goossen, D. W. Kisker, A. E. White, K. T. Short, D. C. Jacobson, and J. M. Poate, App. Phys. Lett. 58, 2604 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Pollard, R. D.

C. E. Collins, J. W. Digby, R. D. Pollard, R. E. Miles, G. M. Parkhurst, J. M. Chamberlain, D. P. Steenson, N. J. Cronin, L. S. Karatzas, and J. W. Bowen, in IEEE Microwave Theory and Technology Symposium Digest (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1997), Vol. 3, p. 1439.

Radic, S.

Ramo, S.

S. Ramo, J. R. Whinnery, and T. van Duzer, Fields and Waves in Communication Electronics, 3rd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1994).

Roskos, H.

H. Roskos, M. C. Nuss, K. W. Goossen, D. W. Kisker, A. E. White, K. T. Short, D. C. Jacobson, and J. M. Poate, App. Phys. Lett. 58, 2604 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Roskos, H. G.

J.-M. Heiliger, M. Nagel, H. G. Roskos, H. Kurz, F. Schnieder, W. Heinrich, R. Hey, and K. Ploog, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2233 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Schnieder, F.

J.-M. Heiliger, M. Nagel, H. G. Roskos, H. Kurz, F. Schnieder, W. Heinrich, R. Hey, and K. Ploog, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2233 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Short, K. T.

H. Roskos, M. C. Nuss, K. W. Goossen, D. W. Kisker, A. E. White, K. T. Short, D. C. Jacobson, and J. M. Poate, App. Phys. Lett. 58, 2604 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Slater, J. C.

J. C. Slater, Rev, Mod. Phys. 18, 441 (1946).
[CrossRef]

Sobolewski, R.

Steenson, D. P.

C. E. Collins, J. W. Digby, R. D. Pollard, R. E. Miles, G. M. Parkhurst, J. M. Chamberlain, D. P. Steenson, N. J. Cronin, L. S. Karatzas, and J. W. Bowen, in IEEE Microwave Theory and Technology Symposium Digest (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1997), Vol. 3, p. 1439.

Stroud, C. R.

van Duzer, T.

S. Ramo, J. R. Whinnery, and T. van Duzer, Fields and Waves in Communication Electronics, 3rd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1994).

van Exter, M.

D. Grischkowsky, S. Keiding, M. van Exter, and Ch. Fattinger, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 2006 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. van Exter and D. Grischkowsky, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 38, 1684 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Weller, T. M.

H.-J. Cheng, J. F. Whitaker, T. M. Weller, and L. P. B. Katehi, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 42, 2399 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Whinnery, J. R.

S. Ramo, J. R. Whinnery, and T. van Duzer, Fields and Waves in Communication Electronics, 3rd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1994).

Whitaker, J. F.

H.-J. Cheng, J. F. Whitaker, T. M. Weller, and L. P. B. Katehi, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 42, 2399 (1994).
[CrossRef]

White, A. E.

H. Roskos, M. C. Nuss, K. W. Goossen, D. W. Kisker, A. E. White, K. T. Short, D. C. Jacobson, and J. M. Poate, App. Phys. Lett. 58, 2604 (1991).
[CrossRef]

App. Phys. Lett. (1)

H. Roskos, M. C. Nuss, K. W. Goossen, D. W. Kisker, A. E. White, K. T. Short, D. C. Jacobson, and J. M. Poate, App. Phys. Lett. 58, 2604 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

J.-M. Heiliger, M. Nagel, H. G. Roskos, H. Kurz, F. Schnieder, W. Heinrich, R. Hey, and K. Ploog, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2233 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Dykaar, A. F. J. Levi, and M. Anzlowar, Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 1123 (1990).
[CrossRef]

R. W. McGowan and D. Grischkowsky, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2842 (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

A. Nahata and T. F. Heinz, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 701 (1996).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. (2)

M. van Exter and D. Grischkowsky, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 38, 1684 (1990).
[CrossRef]

H.-J. Cheng, J. F. Whitaker, T. M. Weller, and L. P. B. Katehi, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 42, 2399 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

D. Grischkowsky, I. N. Duling, J. C. Chen, and C.-C. Chi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 1663 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rev, Mod. Phys. (1)

J. C. Slater, Rev, Mod. Phys. 18, 441 (1946).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

N. Marcuvitz, Waveguide Handbook (Peregrinus, London, 1986).
[CrossRef]

S. Ramo, J. R. Whinnery, and T. van Duzer, Fields and Waves in Communication Electronics, 3rd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1994).

C. E. Collins, J. W. Digby, R. D. Pollard, R. E. Miles, G. M. Parkhurst, J. M. Chamberlain, D. P. Steenson, N. J. Cronin, L. S. Karatzas, and J. W. Bowen, in IEEE Microwave Theory and Technology Symposium Digest (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1997), Vol. 3, p. 1439.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic diagram of the optoelectronic THz–time-domain spectroscopy system, incorporating quasi-optical coupling into the investigated THz waveguide. (b) Measured reference THz pulse. (c) Relative amplitude spectrum of the reference pulse.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Measured THz pulse transmitted through a 24-mm-long 240µm diameter stainless-steel waveguide. (b) Amplitude spectrum of the measured pulse (a).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Measured THz pulse (dots) transmitted through a 4-mm-long 280µm-diameter stainless-steel waveguide. (b) Amplitude spectrum (dots) of the measured transmitted pulse (a). The solid curves are the theoretical predictions, and the insets show an expanded scale.

Equations (1)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Eoutω,z=Einω,0aeˆx·nAnEtn expiknωzda.

Metrics